JAMB 2014-2015 EXAMINATION SYLLABUS- CHEMISTRY

JAMB 2014-2015 EXAMINATION SYLLABUS- CHEMISTRY

sciences

CHEMISTRY

GENERAL OBJECTIVES

The aim of the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) syllabus in Chemistry is to prepare the candidates for the Board’s examination. It is designed to test their achievement of the course objectives, which are to:
(i)apply the basic principles governing scientific methods in new situations;
(ii)interpret scientific data;
(iii)deduce the relationships between chemistry and other sciences;
(iv)apply the knowledge of chemistry to industry and everyday life.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
1. Separation of mixtures and purification of chemical substances
(a)Pure and impure substances
(b)Boiling and melting points.
(c)Elements, compounds and mixtures
(d)Chemical and physical changes.
(e)Separation processes: evaporation, simple and fractional distillation, sublimation, filtration, crystallization, paper and column chromatography, simple and fractional crystallization.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:
i.   distinguish between pure and impure substances;
ii.  use boiling and melting points as criteria   for   purity   of chemical substances;
iii. distinguish  between elements, compounds and mixture;
iv. differentiate between chemical and physical changes;
v.  identify the properties of the components of a mixture;
vi. specify the principle involved in each separation method.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
2. Chemical combination
Stoichiometry, laws of definite and multiple proportions, law of conservation of matter, Gay Lussac’s  law  of   combining volumes, vogadro’s law; chemical symbols, formulae, equations and their    uses, relative atomic mass based on l2C=12, the mole concept and Avogadro’s number

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:
(i)   perform simple alculations involving formulae, equations/chemical composition and the mole concept;
(ii) deduce the chemical laws from: given expressions/statements;
(iii) interpret data based on these laws;
(iv) interpret graphical representations related to these laws.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

3. Kinetic theory of matter and Gas Laws
(a) An outline of the kinetic theory of matter, melting, vapourazation and reverse processes; melting and boiling explained in terms of molecular motion and Brownian movement.
(b) The laws of Boyle, Charles, Graham and Dalton (law of partial pressure): combined gas law, molar volume and atomicity of gases.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:
(i)   apply the theory to distinguish between solids, liquids and gases;
(ii)  deduce reasons for change of state;
(iii) draw inference based on molecular motion;
(iv) deduce chemical laws form given expressions/ statements;
(v)   interpret graphical representations related to these laws;
(vi) perform simple calculations based on these laws and the relationship Between the vapour density of gases and the relative molecular mass.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
4. Atomic structure and bonding
(a)(i)The concept of atoms, molecules and ions, the works of Dalton, Milikan, Rutherford, Mosely,
Thompson and Bohr. Simple hydrogen spectrum, Ionization of gases illustrating the electron as
fundamental particle of matter.
(ii) Atomic structure, electron configuration, atomic number, mass number and isotopes; specific examples should be drawn from elements of atomic number 1 to 20. Shapes of s and p orbitals.
(b)The periodic table and periodicity of  elements,presentation of the periodic table with a view to recognizing families of elements e.g. alkali metals,halogens, the noble gases and transition metals. The variation of the following properties should be noticed: ionization energy, ionic radii, electron affinity and electronegativity.
(c)   Chemical bonding. Electrovalency and covalency, the electron configuration of elements and their tendency to attain the noble gas structure. Hydrogen bonding and metallic bonding as special types of electrovalency andcovalency respectively; coordinate bond as a type of covalent bond as illustrated by compelexes like [Fe(CN)6]3-, [Fe(CN)6]4-, [Cu(NH3)4]2+ and [Ag(NH3)2]+: Van der Waals’ forces should be mentioned as a special type of bonding forces.
(d)Shapes of simple molecules; Linear ((H2, 02, C12,HCI and   C02), non-linear   (H20)   and   Tetrahedral; (CR.)
(e)Nuclear Chemistry:
(i) Redioactivity (elementary treatment only)
(ii) Nuclear reactions. Simple equations, uses and applications of natural and artificial Radioactivity.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:
(i) distinguish between atom, molecules and ions;
(ii) assess the contributions of these scientists to the development of the atomic structure;
(iii) deduce the number of protons, neutrons and electrons form atomic and mass numbers of an atom;
(iv) apply the rules guiding the arrangement of electrons in an atom;
(v) relate isotopy to mass number;
(vi) perform simple calculations on relative atomic mass
(vii) determine the number of electrons in s and p atomic orbitals.
(viii) relate atomic number to the position of an element on the periodic table;
(ix) relate properties of groups of elements on the periodic table;
(x)  identify reasons for variation in properties across the period.
(xi) Differentiate between the different types of bonding.
(xii) deduce bond types based on electron configurations;
(xiii) relate the nature of bonding to properties of Compounds;
(xiv) apply it in everyday chemistry;
(xv) differentiate between the various, shapes of Molecules
xvi) distinguish between ordinary chemical reaction and nuclear reaction;
(xvii) differentiate between natural and artificial radioactivity;
(xviii) compare the properties of the different types of nuclear radiations;
(xix) compute simple calculations on the half-life of a radioactive materials;
(xx) balance simple nuclear equation;
(xxi) identify the various applications of radioactivity.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
5.Air
The usual gaseous constituents – nitrogen, oxygen, water vapour, carbon (IV) oxide and the noble gases (argon and neon), proportion of oxygen in the air e.g. by burning phosphorus or by using alkaline pyrogallol, air as a mixture and some uses of the noble gas.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:
(i) deduce reason (s) for the existence of air as a mixture;
(ii) identify the principle involved in the separation of air components;
(iii) deduce reasons for the variation in the composition of air in the environment;
(iv) specify the uses of some of the constituents of air.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
6.Water
Composition by volume: Water as a solvent, atmospheric  gases dissolved in water and their biological significance. Water as a product of the combustion of hydrogen. Hard and soft water. Temporary and permanent hardness and methods of softening hard water Purification of town water supplies. Water of crystallization, efflorescence, deliquescence and hygroscopy.
Examples of the substances exhibiting these properties and their uses

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
(i) identify the various uses of water
(ii) distinguish between the properties of hard and     soft water;
(iii) determine the causes of hardness;
(iv) identity methods of removal of hardness;
(v) describe the processes involved in the purification of water for town supply;
(vi) distinguish between these phenomena;
(vii) identify the various compounds   that exhibit these phenomena.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

7.   Solubility
(a) Unsaturated, saturated And supersaturated solutions. Solubility curves and simple deductions from them, (solubility defined in terms of mole per dm3) and simple calculations.
(b) Solvents for fats, oil and paints and the use of such solvents for the removal of stains.
(c) Suspensions and colloids: Harmdttan haze and pants as examples of suspensions and fog, milk, aerosol spray and rubber solution as examples of colloids.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:
(i) distinguish between the different types of solutions;
(ii) interpret solubility curves;
(iii) calculate the amount of solute that can dissolve in a given amount of solven at a given temperature;
(iv) deduce that solubility is temperature-dependent;
(v)  classify solvents based on their uses
(vi) differentiate.between a true solution suspension and colloids;
(vii) compare the properties of a true solution and a ‘false’ solution.
(viii) provide typical examples of suspensions and colloids.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
8.Environmental Pollution
(a)  Sources and effects of pollutants.
(b)  Air pollution:Examples of air pollutants such as H2S, CO, S02, oxides of nitrogen, fluorocarbons and dust
(c)  Water pollution. Sewage and oil pollution should be known.
(d)  Soil pollution: Oil spillage, Biodegradable and non-biodegradable pollutants

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:
(i) identify the different types.of pollution and pollutants;
(ii) classify pollutants as biodegradable and non-biodegradable;
(iii) asses the effects of pollution on the environment;
(iv)  recommend measures for control oi environment pollution.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
9.Acids, bases and salts
(a) General characteristics and properties of acids, bases and salts! Acids/base indicators, basicity of acids, normal, acidic,  basic and double salts. An acid defined as a substance whose aqueous solution furnishes H30+ions or as a proton donor. Ethanoic, citric and tartaric acids as examples of naturally occurring organic acids, alums as examples of double slats, preparation of salts by neutralization, precipitation and action of acids on metals. Oxides and trioxocarbonate (IV) salts
(b) Qualitative comparison of the conduct ness of molar solutions of strong and weak acids and bases, relationship between conductance, amount of ions present and their relative mobilities.
(c) pH and pOH scale.pH defined as – log[H30+]
(d) Acid/base titrations.
(e) Hydrolysis of salts: Simple examples such as NH4CI, AICI3, NaC03, CH3COONa to be mentioned

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:
(i) distinguish between the properties of acids and bases;
(ii) identify the different types of acids and bases;
(iii) differentiate,between-acidity and alkalinity using acid/base
(vi)   relate degree of dissociation to strength of acids and bases;
(vii) relate degree of dissociation to conductance;
(viii) perform simple calculation on pH;
(ix)   identify the appropriate acid-base indicator;
(x)     interpret graphical representation of titration curves;
(xi)    perform simple calculations based on the mole concept;.
(xii)   balance equations for the hydrolysis of salts;
(xiii)  deduce the properties (acidic, basic, neutral) of the resultant solution.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
10. Oxidation and reduction
(a)Oxidation in terms of the addition of oxygen or removal of hydrogen.
(b)Reduction as removal of oxygen or addition of hydrogen.
(c)Oxidation and reduction in terms of electron transfer.
(d)Use of oxidation numbers. Oxidation and reduction treated as change in oxidation. number and use of oxidation numbers in balancing simple equations. IUPAC nomenclature o inorganic compounds.
(e)Tests for oxidizing and reducing agents.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:
(i)     identify the various forms of expressing oxidation and reduction;
(ii)    classify chemical reactions in terms of oxidation or reduction;
(iii)   balance redox reaction, equations;
(iv)   deduce the oxidation number of chemical species;
(v)    compute the number,.of electron transfer in redox reactions;
(vi) identify the name of redox species using IUPAC nomenclature:
(vii) distinguish between oxidizing and reducing agents in redox reactions.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
11.Electrolysis
(a)Electrolytes and non-electrolytes. Faraday’s laws of electrolysis.
(b)Electrolysis of dilute H2S04, aqueous CuS04, CuCl2,solution, dilute and concentrated NaCl solutions and fused NaCl and factors affecting discharge of ions at the electrodes.
(c)Uses of electrolysis: Purification of metals e.g. copper and production of elements and compounds e.g. Al, Na, 02, Cl2 andNaOH.
(d)Electrochemical cells: Redox series (K, Na. Ca. Mg.AI, Zn, Fe, Pb, H.Cu.Hg. Au,) Half-cell reactions and Electrode potentials. Simple calculations only.
(e)Corrosion as an electrolytic process, cathodic protection of metals, pairing, electroplating and coating with grease or oil as ways of preventing iron from corrosion.

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
(i) identify between electrolytes and non electrolytes;
(ii) perform calculations based on faraday as a mole of electrons.
(iii)  identify suitable electrodes for different electrolytes.
(iv)  specify the chemical reactions a the electrodes;
(v)  determine the products at the electrodes;
(vi)  identify the factors that affect the product of electrolysis;
(vii) specify the different areas of application of electrolysis;
(viii) identify the various electrochemical cells;
(ix) calculate electrode potentials using half- cell reaction equations;
(x) determine the different areas of applications of electrolytic processes;
(xi) apply the methods to protect metals.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
12.Energy changes
(a)Energy changes(?H) accompanying physical and chemical changes: dissolution of substances in or reaction with water e.g. Na, NaOH, K, NH4, cl. Endothermic (+?H) and exothermic (-?H) reactions.
(b)Entropy as an order-disorder phenomenon: simple illustration \ like mixing of gases and dissolutioi of salts.
(c)Spontaneity of reactions:
?GO=0 as a criterion for equilibrium, ?GOgreater or less than zero as a criterion for non-spontaneity or spontaneity.

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
(i) determine the types of heat changes (?H) in physical and chemical processes;
(ii) interpret graphical representation fo heat changes;
(iii) relate the physical state of a substance to the degree of orderliness;
(iv) determine the conditions for spontaneity of a reaction;
(v)   relate (?H), ?SO and ?GO as driving forces for chemical reactions; (vi)  sole simple problems based on the relationships ?GO= ?HOT?SO)

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

13. Rates of Chemical Reaction
(a) Elementary treatment of the following factors which can change the rate of a chemical reaction:
(i) Temperature e.g. the reaction between HCI and Na2S203 or Mg and HCI
(ii)   Concentration e.g. the reaction between HCL and Na2S203, HCL and marble and the iodine clock reaction, for gaseous systems, pressure may be used as concentration term.
(iii) Surface area e.g. the reaction between marble and HCI with marble in
(i) powdered form
(ii) lumps of the same mass.
(iv) Catalyst e.g. the decomposition of H202 or KCIO3 in the presence or absence of Mn02
(b)Concentration/time curves.
(c)Activation energy Qualitative treatment of ArrhmuY law and the collision theory, effect of light on some reactions. e.g. halogenation of alkanes

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
(i)  identify the factors mat affect the Rates of a chemical reaction;
(ii) determine the effects of these factors on the rate of reactions;
(iii) recommend ways of moderating these effects;
(iv) examine the effect of concentration on the rate of a chemical reaction;
(v) describe how the rate of a chemical reaction is affected by surface area;
(vi) determine the types of catalysts suitable for different reactions.
(vii) interpret reaction rate curves;
(viii) solve simple problems on the rate of reactions;
(x) relate the rate of reaction to the kinetic theory of matter.
(xi) examine the significance of activation energy to chemical reactions.
(xi) deduce the value of activation energy (Ea) from reaction rate curves.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

14. Chemical equilibra
Reversible reaction and factors governing the equilibrium position. Dynamic equilibrium. Le Chatelier’s principle and equilibrium constant. Simple examples to include action of Steam on iron and N204-2N02. No Calculation will be required.

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
(i) identify the factors that affects the position of Equilibrium of a chemical reaction;
(ii) predict the effects of each factor on the position of equilibrium.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

15. Non-metals and their compounds
(a) Hydrogen: commercial production from water gas and cracking of petroleum tractions, laboratory preparation, properties, uses and test for hydrogen.
(b) Halogens: Chlorine as a Representative Element of the halogen Laboratory preparation, industrial preparation by electrolysis, properties and uses, e.g. water sterilization, bleaching, manufacture of HC1, plastics and insecticides. Hydrochloric acid preparation and properties. Chlorides and test for chlorides.
(c)Oxygen and Sulphur
(i) Oxygen:
Laboratory preparation, properties and uses. Commercial production from liquid air. Oxides:
Acidic.basic, amphoteric and neutral, trioxygen (ozone) as an allotrope and the   importance of ozone in the atmosphere.
(ii) Sulphur
Uses and allotropes: preparation  of allotropes   is  not expected .  Preparation, properties and uses of sulphur (IV) oxide, the reaction of S02 with alkalis Trioxosulphate (IV) acid and its salts, the effect of acids on salts of trioxosulphate(IV),Tetraoxosulphate (IV) acid. Commercial preparation (contact process only), properties as a dilute acid, an Oxidizing and a dehydrating agent and uses Test for SO42- , Hydrogen sulphide: Preparation and Properties as a weak acid, reducing Agent and precipitating agent. Test for S2-
(d)Nitrogen:
(i) Laboratory preparation
(ii) Production from liquid Air
(iii) Ammonia:
Laboratory and industrial Preparations (Haber Process Only), ammonium salts and their uses, oxidation of ammonia to nitrogen (IV) oxide and trioxonitrate (V) acid test NH4+
(iv)  Trioxonitrate (V) acid: Laboratory preparation from Ammonia; properties and Uses. Trioxonitrate (V) Salt-action of heat and uses. Test for N03
(V) Oxides of nitrogen:
Properties.
The nitrogen cycle.
(e) Carbon:
(i) Allotropes: Uses and properties
(ii) Carbon (IV) oxide- Laboratory preparation, properties and uses. Action of heat on trioxocarbonate (IV) salts and test for CO32-
(iii) Carbon (II) oxide:Laboratory preparation, properties Including its effect on blood; Sources of carbon (II) oxide to Include charcoal, fire and exhaust fumes.
(iv) Coal: Different types, products Obtained form destructive Distillation of wood and coal.
(v) Coke. Gasification and uses.
Manufacture of synthetic gas

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
(i) predict reagents for the laboratory and industrial preparation of these gases and their compound.
(ii) identify the properties of the gases and their compounds.
(iii) compare the properties of these gases and their compounds.
(iv) specify the uses of each gas and its compounds;
(v) determine the specific test for each gas its compounds.
(vi) determine specific tests for C1-, S042-, S2-, NH4+, N03-, C032-
(vii)   identify the allotrope oxygen;
(viii) determine the significance of ozone to our Environment.
(ix) identify the allotropes of sulphur and their uses;
(x) specify the commercial preparation of the acid, its properties and uses;
(xi) predicts reagents for the laboratory Preparation for the gas;
(xii) specify the laboratory and industrial Preparation for the gas
(xiii) use Haber process for the industrial Preparation of ammonia;
(xiv) identify reagents.for het laboratory preparation for the acid, its properties and uses;
(xv) examine the relevance of nitrbgen cylce to the environment.
(xvi) identify allotropes fo carbon;
(xvii) predict reagents for the laboratory preparation of C02;
(xviii) specify the properties of the gas and its uses;
(xiv) determine the test for C02;
(xx) determine the reagents for the Laboratory preparation for the gas;
(xxi) examine its effect on human;
(xxii) identify the different forms of coal:
(xxiiii) determine their uses;
(xxiv) specify the uses of coke and synthetic gas.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

16. Metals and their compounds

(a) Alkali metals e.g. sodium
(i) Sodium hydroxide:- Production by electrolysis of Brine, its action on aluminium zinc and lead ions. Uses including precipitation of metallic hydroxides.
(ii) Sodium trioxo carbonate (IV) and sodium hydrogen trioxocarbonate (IV): Production by Solvay process, properties and uses, e.g. Na2C03 in the manufacture of glass.
(iii) Sodium chloride: its occurrence in Sea water and uses, the economic Importance fo seawater and the Recovery fo sodium chloride.

(b) Alkaline-earth meals, e.g. calcium; Calcium oxide, calcium hydroxide And calciumtrioxocarbonate (IV); Properties and uses. Preparation of Calcium oxide from sea shells, the Chemical composition for cement And the setting of mortar. Test For Ca2+.

(c)  Alimimium Purification of bauxite, Electrolytic extraction properties and uses of aluminium and its compounds. Test for Al3+

(d) Tin Extraction form tis ores. Properties and uses.

(e) Metals of the first transition series.
Characteristic properties:
(i) electron configuration
(ii) oxidation states
(iii) complex ion formation
(iv) formation of coloured ions

(f) Iron
Extraction form sulphide and oxide Ores, properties and uses, Different forms of iron and their Properties and advantages of steel over iron.
Test for Fe2+ and Fe3+

(g) Copper
Extraction from sulphide andoxide Ores, properties and uses of copper Salts, preparation and uses of copper (II) tetraoxosulphate   (VI)
Test for Cu2+
(h)    Alloys Steel, stainless steel, brass, bronze, Type-metal, duralumin and soft Solder (constituents and uses only).

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
(i) determine the method for extraction suitable For each metal;
(ii) relate the methods of extraction to the Properties for the metals;
(iii) compare the chemical reactivities of the metals;
(iv)  specify the uses of the metals;
(v) determine specific test for metallic ions;
(vi) determine the process for the production of the compounds of these metals;
(vii) compare the chemical reactivities pf the compounds.
(viii)  specify the uses fo these compounds;
(ix) determine the processes for the Preparation of the compounds of the metal;
(x) describe the method of purification of bauxite
(xi) relate the method of extraction to it properties
(xii) specify the uses of tin;
(xiii) identify the general properties of the first transition metals;
(xiv) deduce reasons for the specific properties of the transition metals;
(xv) determine the IUPAC names of simple Transition metal complexes.
(xvi) determine the suitable method of Extraction for the metal;
(xvii)  specify the properties and uses of the metal;
(xviii)identify the appropriate method of extraction for the metal and itscompounds.
(xix) relate the properties of the metal and its compound to their uses.
(xix) specify the constituents and uses of the various alloys mentioned.
(xx)  specify the constituents and uses o: the various alloys mentioned;
(xxi) compare the properties and uses of alloys to pure metals.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

17. Organic Compounds
An introduction to the tetravalency of carbon, the general formula, IUP AC nomenclature and the determination of empirical formula of each class of the organic compounds mentioned below.

(a) Aliphatic hydrocarbons
(i)Alkanes Homologous series in relation to physical properties, substitution reaction and a feu examples and uses of halogenated products. Isomerism: structural only (examples on isomerism should not go beyond six carbon atoms).  Petroleum: c o m p o s i t i o n, Fractional distillation and major products; cracking and reforming, Petrochemicals -starting materials of organic syntheses, quality of petrol and meaning ofoctane number.
(ii) Alkenes Isomerism: structural and geometric Isomerism, additional and Polymerization reactions, polythene And synthetic rubber as examples of Products of polymerization and its use In vulcanization.
(iii) Alkynes Ethyne – production form action of Water on carbides, simple reactions and Properties of ethyne.

(b) Aromatic hydrocarbons e.g. benzene – Structure, properties and uses.

(c)   Alkanols Primary, secondary, tertiary -production Of ethanol by fermentation and form Petroleum by¬products. Local examples of fermentation and distillation, e.g. Gin from palm wine and other local Sources and glycerol as a polyhydric  alkanol. Reactions of OH group – oxidation as a distinguishing test between primary,. Secondary and tertiary alkanols.

(d)Alakanals and alkanones. Chemical test to distinguish between Alakanals and alkanones.

(e)Alkanoic acids. Chemical reactions; neutralization and Esterification, ethanedioic (oxalic) acid As an example of a dicarboxylic acid And benzene carboxylic acid as an example of an aromatic acid.

(f)Alkanoates Formation from alkanoic acids and Alkanols – fats and oils as alkanoates Saponification: Production of soap and margarine from Alkanoates and distinction between Detergents and soaps.

(g) Amines (Alkanamines) Primary, Secondary, tertiary

(h) Carbohydrates Classification – mono, di and polysaccharides, composition, chemical Tests for simple sugars and reaction With concentrated tetraoxosulphate (VI) Acid. Hydrolysis of Complex sugar e.g. cellulose form cotton and starch fron cassava, the uses of sugar and starch in athe production of alcoholic beverage, pharmaceuticast and textiles.
(i) Giant molecules e.g. proteins, enzymes, Natural rubbers and polymers.

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
(i) derive the name of organic compounds form their general formulae;
(ii) relate the name of a compound to its structure
(iii) relate the tetravalency of carbon to its ability to form chains of compound (catenation);
(iv) classify compounds according to their Functional groups;
(v)  derive empirical formula and molecular formula, given data;
(vi) relate structure/functional groups tc specific Properties;
(vii) derive various isomeric form from given formula;
(viii) distinguish between the different types of Isomerism;
(ix) classify the various types of hydrocarbon;.
(x)  distinguish each class of hydrocarbon by their properties
(xi)  specify the uses of various hydrocarbons;
(xii) identify crude oil as a complex mixture of hydrocarbon;
(xiii) relate the fractions of hydrpcarboi to their Properties and sues;
(xiv) relate transformation process to quality Improvement of the fractions. xv) distinguishing between various polymerization processes.
(xvi) distinguishing between aliphatic and Aromatic hydrocarbons;
(xvii) relate the properties of benzene to its structure
(xviii)compare the various classes of alkanols;
(xix)   determine the processes involved in ethanol Production;
(xx)    examine the importance of ethanol as an Alternative energy provider.
(xxi)    differentiate between alkanals and alkanones;
(xxii)  compare the various classes of alkanoic acid;
(xxiii) identify natural sources of alkanoates;
(xxiv) specify the sues of alkanoates;
(xxv)  distinguish between detergent and soap;
(xxvi) compare the various classes of alkanamine;
(xxvii) identify the natural sources of carbohydrates and giant molecules;
(xxviii)compare the various classes of carbohydrates;
(xxix) infer the product of hydrolysis of carbohydrates;
(xxx)  determine the uses of carbohydrates;
(xxxi) reale giant molecuales to their uses

RECOMMENDED TEXTS

Ababio, O.Y. (2005) New School Chenistiy for Senior Secodnary Schools, (Third Edition), Onitsha: Africana FIRST Publishers Limited

Bajah, S.T. Teibi, B.O. Onwu, G and Obikwere, A. (1999) Senior Secodnary Chemistry, Book 1, Lagos: Longman

Bajah, S.T. Teibo, B.O. Onwu, G and Onikwere, A. 2000) Senior Secondary Chemsitry, Book 2 and 3, Lagos: Longman

Ohia, G.N.C. Adewoyin, F.A. and Akpan, B.B. (1997) Exam Focus Chenistiy for WASSCE & JME: Ibadan: University Press Pic

STAN (1987) Chemsitry for Senor Seconary Schools, Ibadan: Heinemann

Sylvesta: O.O. (2004) A Comprehesnive Practical Chemistry for Senior Secondary Schools, Ibadan: Evans

Uche, I.O. Adenuga, I J. and Iwuagwu, S.L. (2003) Countdown to WASSCE/SSpE, NECO, JME Chemsitry, Ibadan: Evans

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