The Joint Admissions and Matriculation Board (JAMB) says it is set to meet with heads of other public examination bodies to fine tune examination schedules in order to avoid infringement on its examinations.

The Head, Media and Information of the board, Dr Fabian Benjamin, gave the hint in a statement made available on Sunday in Lagos.

Benjamin stated that the board was determined to address “myriad of challenges confronting public examinations in the country’’.

He said that the board had yet to roll out its applications for 2017 UTME because it was working to improve on the conduct of its examination.

“You cannot do things the same way and expect different result.

“This year, we shall improve on a lot of things to get better results.

“However, we are mindful of the fact that there will be challenges accepting new directions of doing things by candidates.

“There will be improvement in our new payment platform, process of change of name; change of course; change of institution and others.

“This also applies to other difficulties that may arise in our attempt to improve on the entire process, which we have resolved to tackle.

“To make this feasible, the board had started working with other examination bodies to achieve a holistic result for the Nigerian child desirous of sound education,’’ Benjamin stated.

He stated that in view of the above, the board had slated a meeting with the Head of National Office (HNO) of WAEC, the Registrars of NECO and NABTEB, scheduled for Tuesday, Jan. 17.

The meeting is expected to come out with a suitable time table that will not infringe on other examinations.

According to him, the meeting is part of the final preparations to begin sale of the 2017 Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) application forms.

Benjamin stated that the board did not want candidates to be stranded during examination due to clashes in dates of their various external examinations.

He said during the meeting, there would be a harmonisation of calendar of sister examination bodies.

“We appeal to Nigerians to support our drive to ensure that the board’s matriculation examination meets international best practice,” Benjamin stated.

Source: JAMB meets other bodies to fine-tune examination schedule – Vanguard News



FOR SALE : 250 CONTEXTUAL AND OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS ON SHE STOOPS TO CONQUER,OTHELLO AND LAST DAYS AT FORCADOS HIGH FOR 2016As you progress through school, you will be required to write essays. An essay is a written composition in which you express a certain idea and back it up with statements that support the idea. Most frequently, you will be required to write your essay in a five paragraph essay format.

As its name implies, a five paragraph essay consists of five paragraphs. However, the essay itself consists of three parts: an introduction, a body, and a conclusion.


The first paragraph of a five paragraph essay is the introduction. You should begin this paragraph with a statement that captures the reader’s interest so that the reader will want to continue to read your entire essay. Make your first sentence as interesting as possible. Follow with several sentences that clarify your opening statement. Conclude the paragraph with a thesis statement in which you present what you believe and intend to prove. A good thesis statement takes a stand and is very specific.


The body of a five paragraph essay consists of three paragraphs. Each paragraph should be limited to one main idea that supports your thesis statement. The first paragraph of the body should contain your strongest argument in support of your thesis. Begin this paragraph by stating your idea. Then follow with two or three sentences containing supporting evidence or examples. Conclude this paragraph with a sentence that sums up what you discussed in the paragraph.

The second paragraph of the body should follow the same format as the first paragraph of the body. This paragraph should contain your second strongest argument in support of your thesis statement. The third paragraph of the body follows the same format and contains your third strongest argument. In addition to summing up what you have discussed in the paragraph, the last sentence should also indicate that the paragraph contains the final argument you are raising.


The fifth and final paragraph of the essay contains the conclusion. This concluding paragraph should repeat your thesis statement in slightly different words than used in your introductory paragraph. It should summarize the three arguments you presented in the body of your essay. Your final sentence should signal that your essay has come to an end. In essence, your concluding paragraph should make it clear to the reader that you believe you have proven what you set out to prove.




Expository writing informs or explains. For example, if you are writing to inform about the Empire State Building, you could write about where it is located, when it was built, how tall it is, and what can be seen from its observation deck. If you are writing to explain how to grow flowers, you could tell how to prepare the soil, when to plant the seeds, how often to water the flowers as they grow, and when to add fertilizer. You will need skill in expository writing when you write school reports and research papers.

Here are five steps to follow to produce effective expository writing.

Select a subject or idea about which you want to write.

The subject or idea you select is your topic. Sometimes the topic is assigned by your teacher. If you have to select your own topic, start by thinking about a general theme such as water. Then list some specific topics related to water. For example, you might list such topics as diving, swimming, life saving, scuba diving, or even water polo. Select the topic in which you have the most interest.

Determine your writing objective.

Decide whether you want to inform the reader about your topic or explain something about the topic. For example, for the topic of scuba diving, you might decide to inform the reader about how scuba diving got its name, when and where it began, why people scuba dive, and where some of the best places to scuba dive are located. Or, you might decide to explain how to scuba dive. You could write about the training a person would need, certification or license requirements, equipment needed, and the safety procedures to follow.

Gather the information needed to meet your objective.

Sources of information include: people such as your teachers and parents; newspapers and magazines; reference books such as encyclopedias, almanacs, and atlases; and the Internet. Write notes as you gather the information. Using index cards is a good way to do this.

Organize the information you obtain.

You can organize the information from your notes by creating an outline that shows the major ideas about your topic and the supporting details for each idea. Or, you can visually organize your information by using a graphic organizer.

Write your report.

Be sure to include all the information needed to meet your objective. Provide logical supporting facts, details, and examples as needed. Use your outline or graphic organizer to be certain that your writing follows a logical order. Provide smooth transitions so that the reader can easily follow what you are trying to say. End with a summary or conclusion that clearly meets your objective.

Following these five steps will help you whenever you do expository writing.



Cheating involves real, intended, or attempted deception and/or dishonest action in relation to any academic work in an institution. It can also be called academic dishonesty.Examination malpractices have consistently remained a bane of Nigerian educational system. Most foreigners say that the academic certificates being issued to graduates in Nigeria are no more valuable than the pieces of paper on which they are printed.

So what is examination malpractice? Examination malpractice is an illegal behavior by a candidate before, during or after the examination so that he/she can attain success easily and cheaply. Hence, the worth of the examination is violated.

The major causes of examination malpractices are:

i. Laziness of students: Seriousness is thrown to the wind by many students. Most of them have little time for their studies. They spend their time attending parties and forming gangs who engage in untoward behaviour.

ii. Second is large population of students in many schools. The few who do very well may be promoted or admitted into higher institutions. Students cheat therefore to excel over their mates.

iii. Many students are desperate; thinking that passing the examination is a do or die affair; They want to excel by all means. Some want promises from parents fulfilled Others want to be on TV or Newspaper as the best in one form of examination or the other (though cheats hardly excel).

iv. Syllabuses in many subjects such as Physics, Chemistry etc. are wide and difficult for teachers to cover. The school period is shortened by holidays, shift system and late resumption by students.

v. Another cause of examination malpractice is inadequate preparation for exams. In a number of schools the teachers are few and specialized ones are fewer so students are not adequately prepared for the examinations.
vi. Corrupt invigilators and supervisors: the students know that if they offer bribe to the invigilators. they will be allowed to cheat in the examination hall.

vii. Lastly, there is a general trend in our society towards cheating and this is encouraged by almost all members of the society.The evil effects of examination malpractices cannot be overemphasize. Creativity and resourcefulness are hampered. It wreaks great havoc on the social, religious, economic and political lives of Nigerians.

Some Possible Solutions to Examination Malpractices are:

i. Teachers should he trained properly in their fields.

ii. Holidays may be more in number but reduced in length as students are reluctant to resume from long holidays.

iii. Guidance Counselors should be employed in all schools to guide the students on study habits, career prospects and needs for various careers.

iv. Continuous assessment should be practiced correctly. It will cut examination malpractices as 40% of marks are accumulated from various assessment techniques such as projects and assignments before actual examinations.

v. The number of invigilators and supervisors should be increased in the exam halls. Exam officers, Vice Principals and Principals should occasionally pay visits to exam halls to see what is going on.

vi. The students should be thoroughly searched before entering the hall. Apart from photographs, finger prints on certificates should he used for identification.

In conclusion, solutions are only possible where there are Examination Halls, large classrooms, adequate seats and adequate number of teachers in a school. The government can play a very big role in curbing this menace by providing enough classrooms, desks and employing qualified teachers. And also, during an examination, the school should make sure that each student gets his/her own question paper and provide enough invigilators. The Federal government has established an Exam Ethics Committee, all State Government and Local Government Councils should do the same thing.



The results speak for themselves. The latest Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) have been released – and, once again, East Asian countries have ranked the highest in both tests.

Over recent years, other countries’ positions have gone up and down in the tables but East Asian education – which includes China, Singapore, Taiwan, South Korea and Japan – continues to dominate.

And the gap between these countries and the rest of the world is getting wider.

The reasons why East Asian countries are way ahead of the pack as far as education is concerned has long been debated – but it essentially seems to come down to the following four factors.

1. Culture and mindset

There is a high value placed on education and a belief that effort rather than innate ability is the key to success. East Asian researchers usually point to this as the most important factor for this regions high test results.

The positive aspect of this approach to education is that there is an expectation that the vast majority of pupils will succeed. Learners are not labelled and put into “ability” groups – as they are in England, where this is the norm even in many primary schools. So, in East Asian countries, everyone has the same access to the curriculum – which means many more pupils are able to get those high grades.

Formal schooling is also supplemented by intensive after-school tuition – at the extreme this can see children studying well into the night – and sometimes for up to three hours of extra school in the evening on top of two hours of homework a day.

But while this intensive after school study can get results, it’s important to recognise that in many East Asian countries, educators worry about the quality and influence these “crammers” have on the mental health and well-being of children. And many studies looking at pupils’ experiences in these schools have reported high levels of adolescent stress and a sense of pressure to achieve – for both the students and their parents.

2. The quality of teachers

Teaching is a respected profession in East Asia, where there is stiff competition for jobs, good conditions of service, longer training periods and support for continuing and extensive professional development.

In Shanghai, teachers have much lower teaching workloads than in England – despite the bigger classes. And they use specialist primary mathematics teachers, who teach two 35-40 minute lessons a day. This gives the teachers time for planning – or the chance to give extra support to pupils that need it – along with time for professional development in teacher research groups.

In Japan, “lesson study” is embedded in primary schools. This involves teachers planning carefully designed lessons, observing each other’s teaching, and then drawing out the learning points from these observations. And lesson study also gives teachers time to research and professionally develop together.

3. Using the evidence

Ironic though it may be, much of the theoretical basis for East Asian education has been heavily influenced by research and developments in the West. For example, Jerome Bruner’s theory of stages of representation which says that learners need hands-on experiences of a concept – then visual representations – as a basis for learning symbolic or linguistic formulations.

This has been translated in Singapore as a focus on concrete, pictorial and abstract models in mathematical learning. For example, this might mean arranging counters in rows of five to learn the five times table, then using pictures of hands that each have five digits, before writing multiplication facts in words, and then adding in numerals and the multiplication and equals signs.

4. A collective push

In the 1970s, Singapore’s educational outcomes lagged behind the rest of the world – the transformation of Singaporean education was achieved through systemic change at national level that encompassed curriculum development, national textbooks and pre-service and in-service teacher education.

Similarly in Shanghai and South Korea educational change and improvement is planned and directed at a national level. This means that all schools use government approved curriculum materials, there is more consistency about entry qualifications to become a teacher and there is much less diversity of types of schools than in the UK.

The success of East Asian education has turned these countries into “reference societies” – ones by which policymakers in the UK and elsewhere measure their own education systems and seek to emulate. Interest in East Asian education in the UK has informed the current “mastery approach” which is used in primary mathematics. Teaching for mastery uses methods found in Shanghai and Singapore and has been the basis of many recent research projects – some sponsored by government funding and others promoted by educational charities or commercial organisations.


Examination is a right way of deciding one’s mastery of a particular subject or many subjects. It is also a way safely determining one’s ability to be promoted to a new class, new job or place. Examination Malpractice is a deviation from the normal procedure. It is an illegal and dishonest way of passing an examination. Examination malpractice is in itself an aspect of cheating, it is academic dishonesty.

Like in our country Nigeria, today students no longer study their books to pass their exams, because of the miracles happening in the various examination halls. It has eaten so deep into the nerve center of our educational well being that there is hardly any area of examination that people do not cheat in today. The practice has gripped into the primary, secondary, teacher training colleges, colleges of educations, technical colleges and even the universities.

This examination malpractice is one of the problems, that is killing our educational system today.
The value of education system lies in its ability to actualize the goals of education. Till now, exams still remain the important tool for an objective assessment and evaluation of what learners have achieved after a period of schooling.

Examination malpractice is now common everywhere and you can see that every examination seasons witnesses the emergence of new and ingenious ways of cheating.


Firstly, the parents; moral upbringing of some of the youths is definitely poor. The ransom paid to the mercenaries who write the exams for our students is paid by the parents.Many parents go to the extent of bribing their way through to make sure unearned grades for their words. Like during the time of exams (E.g., WAEC, NECO etc.) it is not the parents that give their children (students) the money to move from their parent school to a new school in search of miracles during the exams. Many parents are the corrupt master and mistresses of education in our country (Nigeria). They are therefore, the causes of examination malpractice among the students today.

Secondly, the teachers; they act like parents to the children while they are in schools, but are they out to teach the students in an active interactive and creative academic foundations? Are they out to produce students who are relevant, efficient, production, competitive and excel in every endeavors in life positively.So i don’t know what the students will do if the teachers abandon their responsibilities in the academic field, if the teachers also, fail to implement the school curriculum as required, what will the students do and not engaging themselves in examination malpractices to pass their examination? Many teachers encourage examination malpractice because they lack the zeal to work but want to be praised for the job not done.

Thirdly, lazy attitude of students; students today are totally lazy towards their studies some are not ready to do any serious academic work. Instead, they would resort to cheating during examinations to pass. Some see examination malpractice as an opportunity to make quick money. Examination papers are produced and sold to candidates some of these papers have been discovered to be fake while, sometimes they have been genuine.

Fourthly, the Global System of Mobile Telephones (GSM); which in our world today has totally revolutionized examination malpractice in the school system. A lot of academic information is stored in handset for directs use in examination halls or for  transfer Via SMS to other student anywhere in the country.


Examination malpractice leads to irreversible loss of credibility. A country that becomes noted for examination malpractices loses international credibility. The implication is that certificates, documents emanating from the country will be treated with suspicion.

Furthermore, the producing of fake drugs by pharmacists and massive fraud in commercial banks are the consequences of examination malpractice not controlled at the earlier stage which blossomed to high scale malpractice and corruption.
Finally, I urge you my fellow youths to desist from any form of examination malpractices no mater who is urging you to be involved. We should try and work hard enough to develop self confidence in ourselves, because what we sow, we reap, whether good or bad.




Standard measure

1 mile = 1760 yards = 5280 feet
1 yard = 3 feet = 36 inches
1 rod = 5.5 yards = 16.5 feet
1 hand = 4 inches
1 span = 9 inches
1 light year = 5 878 500 000 000 miles

1 kilometres = 1000 metres
1 metre = 1000 millimetres
1 metre = 10 decimetres
1 decimetre = 10 centimetres
1 centimetre = 10 millimetres
1 light year = 9 465 000 000 000 000 metres

Surveyor’s measure

1 mile = 8 furlongs = 80 chains
1 furlong = 10 chains = 220 yards
1 chain = 4 rods = 22 yards = 100 links
1 link = 7.92 inches

Nautical measure

1 league = 3 nautical miles
1 nautical mile = 1.1508 statute miles
1 degree (@ equator) = 60 nautical miles
120 fathoms = 1 cable
1 fathom = 2 yards = 6 feet

Conversion factors

1 mile = 1.6093 kilometres : 1 kilometre = 0.62139 miles
1 yard = 0.9144 metres : 1 metre = 1.0936 yards
1 foot = 0.3048 metres : 1 metre = 3.2808 feet
1 inch = 25.4 millimetres : 1 millimetre = 0.03937 inches


1 square mile = 640 acres
1 acre = 10 square chains
1 square chain = 16 square rods
1 square rod = 30.25 square yards
1 square yard = 9 square feet
1 square foot = 144 square inches
1 circular inch = 0.7854 square inches

1 square kilometre=100 hectares
1 hectare = 100 ares
1 are = 100 square metres
1 square metre = 100 square decimetres
1 square decimetre = 100 square centimetres
1 square centimetre = 100 square millimetres

Conversion factors

1 square mile = 2.5899 square kilometres : 1 square kilometre = 0.3861 square miles
1 acre = 0.4047 hectares : 1 hectare = 2.471 acres
1 square yard = 0.836 square metres : 1 square metre = 1.196 square yards
1 square foot = 0.0929 square metres : 1 square metre = 10.764 square feet
1 square inch = 645.2 square millimetres : 1 square millimetre = 0.00155 square inches


Standard measure

1 cubic yard = 27 cubic feet
1 cubic foot = 1728 cubic inches
1 cord (wood) = 4 x 4 x 8 foot
1 perch (masonry) = 16.5 x 1.5 x 1 foot

Shipping measure

1 register ton = 100 cubic feet
40 cubic feet = 32.143 US bushels
40 cubic feet = 31.16 imperial bushels

Dry measure

1 US bushel = 1 winchester struck bushel
1 US bushel = 1.2445 cubic feet
1 US bushel = 4 pecks = 32 quarts
1 peck = 8 quarts = 16 pints
1 heaped bushel = 1.25 struck bushels
1 UK bushel = 8 imperial gallons

Liquid measure

1 US gallon = 4 quarts = 8 pints
1 quart = 2 pints = 8 gills
1 UK gallon = 1.2009 US gallons

Old liquid measure

1 tun = 2 pipes = 3 puncheons
1 pipe = 1 butt = 2 hogsheads = 4 barrels
1 puncheon = 2 tierces = 84 gallons
1 tierce = 42 gallons
1 barrel = 31.5 gallons

Apothecaries fluid measure

1 US fluid ounce = 8 drachms
1 fluid drachm = 60 mimims
1 US fluid ounce = 1.805 cubic inches
1 UK fluid ounce = 1.732 cubic inches

Cubic measure
1 cubic metre = 1000 cubic decimetres
1 cubic metre = 1000000 cubic millimetres
1 cubic decimetre = 1000 cubic centimetres
1 cubic centimetre = 1000 cubic millimetres

Dry and liquid measure

1 hectolitre = 100 litres
1 litre = 10 decilitres
1 decilitre = 10 centiletres
1 centilitres = 10 millilitres
1 litre = 1 cubic decimetre
1000 litres = 1 cubic metre

Conversion factors

1 cubic yard = 0.7646 cubic metres : 1 cubic metre = 1.308 cubic yards
1 cubic foot = 0.02832 cubic metres : 1 cubic metre = 35.315 cubic feet
1 cubic inch = 16387.064 cubic millimetres : 1 cubic millimetre = 0.00006102 cubic inches
1 cubic foot = 28.137 litres : 1 litre = 0.0353 cubic feet
1 US gallon = 3.785 litres : 1 litre = 0.2642 US gallons
1 UK gallon = 4.5454 litres : 1 litre = 0.22 UK gallons

Velocity / Acceleration

1 mile/hour = 1.4666 feet/sec
1 foot/minute = 0.2 inches/second
1 knot = 1 nautical mile/hour
1 cycle/second = 1 hertz
1 metre/sec = 3.6 kilometres/hour
1 revolution/minute = 0.104 radians/second

(Acceleration) gravity = 9.81 metres/second²

Conversion factors

1 mile/hour = 1.609 kilometres/hour : 1 kilometres/hour = 0.62139 miles/hour
1 foot/second = 0.3048 metres/second : 1 metre/second = 3.2808 feet/second
1 knot = 1.852 kilometres/hour : 1 kilometre/hour = 0.5399 knots

Weight / Mass

Avoirdupois measure

1 gross ton = 1 long ton = 2240 pounds
1 net ton = 1 short ton = 2000 pounds
1 pound = 16 ounces = 7000 grains
1 ounce = 16 drachms = 437.5 grains

1 long ton = 20 hundredweight
1 hundredweight = 4 quarters = 112 pounds
1 quarter = 2 stone = 28 pounds
1 quintal = 100 pounds

Troy weight (measure of gold and silver)

1 pound = 12 ounces = 5760 grains
1 ounce = 20 pennyweights = 480 grains
1 pennyweight = 24 grains
1 carat (diamond) = 3.086 grains

Apothecaries weight

1 pound = 12 ounces = 5760 grains
1 ounce = 8 drachms = 480 grains
1 drachm = 3 scruples = 60 grains
1 scruple = 20 grains

Standard measure
1 tonne = 1 metric ton
1 tonne = 1000 kilograms
1 kilograms = 1000 grams

1 centigram = 10 milligrams
1 decigram = 10 centigrams
10 decigrams = 1 gram
10 grams = 1 dekagram
10 dekagrams = 1 hectogram
10 hectograms = 1 kilogram

Conversion factors

1 long ton = 1.016 tonnes : 1 tonne = 0.9842 tons (long)
1 short ton = 0.9071 tonnes : 1 tonne = 1.1024 tons (short)
1 pound = 0.4536 kilograms : 1 kilogram = 2.2046 pounds (avoirdupois)
1 grain = 0.0648 grams : 1 gram = 15.432 grains

1 grain (avoidupois) = 1 grain (troy) = 1 grain (apothecaries)

Pressure / Force

1 atmosphere = 14696 psi (pound/inch²)
1 psi = 144 pounds/square foot
1 psi = 2.042 inches Hg (mecury) @ 62° F
1 psi = 27.7 inches H2O (water) @ 62° F
megapascal = 1000 kilopascals
1 kilopascal = 1000 pascals
1 bar = 1 megapascal
1 Newton = 1 kilogram x 9.81

Conversion factors
1 atmosphere = 101.325 kilopacsals : 1 kilopascal = 0.00986 atmospheres
1 psi = 6.894 kilopascals : 1 kilopascal = 0.1382 psi

1 kilogram/square millimetre = 1422.32 psi : 1 psi = 0.7031 grams/square millimetre
1 kilogram-metre = 7.233 foot-pounds : 1 foot-pound = 0.1382 kilogram-metres

1 UK tonf = 9.964 kilonewtons : 1 kilonewton = 0.1004 UK ton (force)
1 US tonf = 8.896 kilonewtons : 1 kilonewton = 0.1124 US ton (force)
1 pound(force) = 4.4482 Newtons : 1 Newton = 0.2248 pounds(force)


1 solar year = average interval between 2 successive returns of the sun to the first point of Aries.
1 sireal year = average period of revolution of the Earth with respect to the fixed stars.
1 anomalistic year = average interval between successive perihelions
1 solar year (1 astronomical year) = 365.242 mean solar days
1 sireal year = 365.256 mean solar days
1 anomalistic year = 365.259 mean solar days
1 calendar year = 365.25 mean solar days
1 solar day = interval between 2 successive returns of the sun to the meridian
1 mean solar day = average length of solar day over 1 year
1 second = time equal to the duration of 9,192,631,770 periods of radiation corresponding to the transition of the ground state of the Caesium-133 atom.

1 lustrum = 5 years

Old English standard

1 moment = 1.5 minutes

Work / Energy / Power

1 horsepower/hour = 2545 British thermal units
1 British thermal unit = 778 foot-pounds
1 kilowatt/hours = 3600 kilojoules
1 kilowatt = 1 kilojoule/sec

Conversion factors

1 horsepower/hour = 0.746 kilowatt/hours : 1 kilowatt/hour = 1.34 horsepower/hours
1 horsepower = 746 watts : 1 watt = 0.00134 horsepower
1 British thermal unit = 0.252 calories (kilogram calorie)


Boiling point of water = 212° Fahrenheit
Freezing point of water = 32° Fahrenheit
Boiling point of water = 100° Celsius
Freezing point of water = 0° Celsius
1 Celsius degree = 1 Kelvin degree
0 Kelvin = absolute zero

Conversion factors

Fahrenheit to Celsius = (5/9)x(tF-32)
Fahrenheit to Kelvin = (5/9)x(tF + 459.67)
Celsius to Fahrenheit = (9/5 x tC)+32
Celsius to Kelvin = tC + 273.15

India On Rent !


It may come as a surprise that I hated math while in school. If I teach it today, then something must have happened. Here is my tale of conquering math anxiety…

From day one, kids in school get drummed into them that teachers know it all. Students don’t dare challenge the teacher and if they are falling behind it’s implied that the fault lies within the student. (My story is on no way intended to bash the teaching profession. There are many, many excellent teachers out there.) But, teachers today are dealing with new challenges such as larger class sizes, condensed curriculum, etc., so less time is spent on assessing the individual’s progress and understanding. This fact, combined with the tendency for kids to avoid questioning teachers on unclear concepts, leads to low self-confidence in the classroom and poor performance.

That was me: afraid to question. And, consequently, my grades suffered.

My teachers (in an expensive private school) taught to the top and ignored the bottom half of the class. Guess where I was? I always sat at the back of class, out of trouble and out of sight. Many, many times, I wanted to ask a question because I was confused. But, my heart would thunder and my stomach would turn at the thought of being ridiculed. Ridicule is a very powerful blunt instrument. So, questions didn’t get asked and there were no answers. According to a series of studies from the American Educational Research Association, only 25% of students asked for help once more, after failing to get an answer to a question on the first attempt.

Math anxiety is very common and can be transferred to students from other classmates or even subconciously passed down from parents. Math anxiety manifests in the classroom because students run the risk of appearing vulnerable in front of their peers – something that we spend our entire adolescence trying to avoid. Class participation for a math class often requires students to rely on memorization, and one person’s ability to recall information differs greatly from person to person- especially when mixed with the pressure to respond quickly and confidently in front of an audience. Another challenge for students is having the confidence to potentially answer a question incorrectly – appear foolish – or inquire further about a concept that is still unclear.

So in my case, pretty much ALL the basic concepts of math were never fully learned, all a vague blur, and I had nowhere to go but down. Math is like a ladder with a bunch of rungs. If the lower rungs are missing, then it’s impossible to climb the ladder. The years rolled on and math became more and more difficult – more and more confusing – and when kids are confused they will do anything to relieve the discomfort. Truth be told – we all do that. As a result, kids will turn away, turn off, make excuses, engage in diversions, blame others, hate math, lie to themselves (and their parents) and sink! They give up hope for the future and resolve that they will never be a “math person.”

I was lucky. My best buddy’s dad was a man I admired greatly. Even at my lowest, he picked me up by the scruff of my neck and gave me a life lesson. All it takes is one person to change your outlook and restore confidence. Specifically, he taught me about belief systems. I believed I was stupid. As a self-fulfilling prophecy it worked beautifully. Everything was hard, nothing was easy, and what the teachers had told me over the years came to be true. I was dumb and the results proved it.

Now, if I teach math today, then something must have happened. Yes, it did. Mr. Brown taught me about my bent beliefs and he persuaded me that the best way to understand math was to try to explain it to other people. My immediate reaction was, “You must be insane! How can I do that?!” But, Mr. Brown insisted and even got me a job as a math teacher! Not just any job, but at a prestigious technical college named after John Napier, the guy who invented logarithms! Scared or not, Mr. Brown pushed me forward and I studied, and I studied, and I studied. Not to pass an exam, but to pass my future students unscathed. After spending the afternoons on intense individual study, I would go to school at night and teach math. Monday through Friday – every night. And, as I was teaching – I found I was really teaching myself.

I finished at my University with 1st Class Honors, and making 100’s became routine – something I would have never thought possible. Once I abandoned my fear of asking questions and focused on learning concepts rather than relying on memorization, no exam question could rattle my cage and there was no more exam anxiety. I became comfortable confronting the things I was unclear on, and admitting openly when I needed help. One-on-one learning is a life-time opportunity – once students find comfort and are at ease in being open and honest about their shortcomings, they open the door to REAL learning.

After one year of this intense study and clarification in my mind, I discovered that, without my perceived pressure of a classroom full of peers waiting to judge my performance, all the basic concepts were actually very straightforward and made perfect sense.

Don’t we ALL like stuff when we – are – good – at – it? I came to really enjoy math – because I – was – good – at – it.

Genius? Me!? No way!! I just did what had to be done. Period.

No more doubts, no more fear, and no more exam anxiety.


  • The faster you admit that you “don’t get it” the sooner you WILL.
  • It’s ok to ask for help from others. ASK QUESTIONS!
  • We can ALL be “Math People.”
  • Study time is a must. NO excuses.
  • Believe you can – and you can! Telling yourself you NEVER will is setting yourself up for failure.

R. Bruce Neill has been a tutor on WyzAnt since February 2011, and provides online lessons. SEND AN EMAIL to R. Bruce today to inquire about availability. Since joining the site, he has taught over 900 hours and received 450 star ratings. His reviews are overwhelmingly positive and one students goes as far as to call him a “math genius!” He tutors in Math, Pre-Algebra, Algebra I and II, Geometry, Trigonometry, Pre-Calculus, Calculus, Microsoft products, Mac, Physics, SAT, ACT, Language Arts, Career Development and resumes – even Portuguese!


Educational Resources

 You can find a lot of fine educational materials available on the internet, however It sometimes takes a while to locate it. These links will lead you to important topics covered in many subjects and training resources which we might be very beneficial to you.

 Open educational resources (OER) are freely accessible, openly licensed documents and media that are useful for teaching, learning, and assessing as well as for research purposes. It is the leading trend in distance education/open and distance learning domain as a consequence of the openness movement.

There is no universal usage of open file formats in OER.The development and promotion of open educational resources is often motivated by a desire to provide an alternate or enhanced educational paradigm.

  1. Algebra Explorations, Pre-K through Grade 7
  2. Basic Algebra
  3. Basic Algebra Concepts
  4. Algebra 1
  5. Algebra I Teacher’s Edition
  6. Algebra 2
  7. Basic Geometry
  8. Basic Geometry, Teacher’s Edition
  9. Basic Geometry Concepts
  10. Geometry
  11. Geometry, Teacher’s Edition
  12. CK-12 Trigonometry Concepts
  13. Trigonometry
  14. Trigonometry, Teacher’s Edition
  15. Basic Probability and Statistics – A Short Course
  16. Basic Probability and Statistics – A Full Course
  17. CK-12 Basic Probability and Statistics Concepts – A Full Course
  18. CK-12 Advanced Probability and Statistics Concepts
  19. Probability and Statistics (Advanced Placement)
  20. Advanced Probability and Statistics Teacher’s Edition
  21. Calculus
  22. Calculus, Teacher’s Edition
  23. Basic Physics
  24. CK-12 People’s Physics Concepts
  25. Physics – From Stargazers to Starships
  26. 21st Century Physics
  27. Chemistry
  28. Chemistry, Teacher’s Edition
  29. Chemistry – Labs & Demos
  30. Biology
  31. Biology Workbook
  32. Biology, Teacher’s Edition
  33. Life Science for Middle School
  34. Earth Science Concepts
  35. Earth Science for Middle Schools
  36. Earth Science for High Schools
  37. Engineering – An Introduction for High School
  38. Adventure Stories
  39. Africa
  40. Anthropology
  41. Archaeology
  42. Best Books Ever Bookshelf
  43. Biographies
  44. Children’s Book Series
  45. Children’s Fiction
  46. Children’s Literature
  47. Classical Era Collection
  48. Detective Fiction
  49. Fantasy Collection
  50. Folklore
  51. Gothic Fiction
  52. Harvard Classics Collection
  53. History For Children
  54. Horror Fiction
  55. Mystery Fiction
  56. Native America
  57. One Act Plays
  58. Philosophy
  59. Poetry
  60. School Stories
  61. Science Fiction
  62. Short Stories
  63. Libros en Español
  64. Westerns


Encyclopedia – Wikipedia Selection

  1. Art
  2. Business Studies
  3. Citizenship
  4. Countries
  5. Everyday life
  6. Design and Technology
  7. Geography
  8. History
  9. IT
  10. Language and Literature
  11. Mathematics
  12. Music
  13. People
  14. Portals
  15. Religion
  16. Science


U.S.National Library of Medicine

  1. Medical Encyclopedia (S.National Library of Medicine)


Hesperian Health Guides: (Hesperian)

  1. Where There Is No Doctor. A village health care handbook.
  2. Where There Is No Dentist
  3. Where Women Have No Doctor
  4. Disabled Village Children
  5. Women with Disabilities – A Health Handbook
  6. A Book for Midwives: Care for pregnancy and birth
  7. Helping Children Who Are Deaf
  8. Helping Children Who Are Blind
  9. Cholera Prevention Fact Sheet
  10. Sanitation and Cleanliness for a Healthy Environment
  11. Water for Life – Community water security
  12. A Community Guide to Environmental Health
  13. Helping Health Workers Learn


OLPC Educational Packages

  1. Storybooks
  2. Web Design
  3. Wikibooks
  4. Wikislice General
  5. Wikislice Animals



102.Wikislice Chemistry

103.Wikislice Physics

104.Nature Photographs

105.World Culture

106.Music Samples

107.How to Build Musical Instruments

108.y-Bee-See – An interactive ABC picturebook

109.A compact multilingual translation dictionary

110.Primary Mathematics in English

111.Primary Science in English

112.Secondary Science in English

113.School Management in English

114.HIV/AIDS Electronic Library – resource for teachers

Mathematics / Typing / Music lessons

115.MathExpression Math Video Lessons, Tips and Practice, from Wei  Chong

116.Typing Practice

117.Music Theory Lessons, from musictheory.net




He defined effective method as the art of teaching science such that students will be able to get the content of the teaching, and the teaching will in turn reflect on students’ behavior.He defined science as a way of explaining the universe in which we live in. He also stated that science is a body of knowledge and a process of acquiring knowledge.

The fundamental knowledge in scientific principles by “Marvin Druger” were given as;
(1)Science might be taught in an integrative manner.
(2)Changes in the science teacher preparation. That is the teacher should adopt different teaching formats, this will serve as a challenge to the students.
(3)Focus on students’ motivation.
(4)An active student involvement in the learning. In this case the teacher is expected to carry the students along as he teaches.

He then highlighted the various methodologies of teaching science effectively coupled with relevant check lists. He explained that the importance of the checklist is to guide the teacher on his presentations.


a.The Use Of Chalkboard:

-This is to illustrate, outline or underscore ideas in written or graphic forms.In using the chalkboard facts that cannot be picked by students during the teacher’s explanation might be seen more clearly by students

-Relevant checklist applicable to the Chalkboard were given as follows…The teacher must;

-Say what he/she has to say before writing them on the board.
-Use keywords or concepts.
-Be aware of the organization of ideas on the board.
-Erase the board before writing a new concept, idea or diagram.
-Write legibly and large enough to be easily read.


-He said this can be used to teach concepts or skills directly or to prepare students for laboratory work, he further explained that this will also provide the students opportunity to see a phenomenon or event that they otherwise would not have observed.
-The following checklists were also given on demonstration.He said that the teacher must;

-Be sure that the students can see and hear clearly.
-Do the demonstration on his own before trying it in front of students.
-Take all necessary precautionary/safety measures,for example making sure all windows are opened.
-Plan his demonstration so that it clearly shows the intended concepts or skills.

c.Field Trip

-The speaker described a field trip as a unique learning experience that cannot be accomplished in classrooms.

-Checklist include…The teacher must;

-Take the trip first before going with the students.
-Prepare the students for the trip by determining their objectives and general expectations.
-Make proper transportation arrangements.
-Confirm prior arrangements for admission.
-Obtain permission slips from parents or guardians
-Arrange for additional adult colleagues of opposite gender to come along.


-He said that the laboratory gives the students unique experiences on the actual use of equipment and materials as they resolve problems and develop knowledge,skills and values related to effective science teaching and learning.

-Checklist include…The teacher must;

-Select a laboratory that best illustrates his objectives.
-Make necessary changes in the physical arrangement of the laboratory.
-Be sure that materials needed for the practicals are available and functional.
-Give clear, succinct directions including safety precautions,how to handle equipments, where to obtain materials, assignment of groups and also expectations of conduct and reporting.

e.Laboratory Report

-He stated that this will formalize the students’ laboratory experience and make connections between prior and present knowledge.

-Checklist include…The teacher must;

-Involve students in report writing.
-Outline expectation in terms of length, format and thoroughness.
-Review the students report.

f.Film Shows/Classroom Computer & 1CT Devices (Devices)

-He said these will present information in an interesting and efficient manner.

-Checklist: The teacher must;

-Preview the Devices before showing/using them to/in the class
-Decide where the Devices can best fit in the instructional sequence
-Outline some introductory remarks.
-Ensure that the students concentrate on knowing how devices work and in knowning why they are relevant.
-At times pause Devices and have brief discussions where necessary, but not to be done too repeatedly.
-Conduct a discussion after the Devices come to an end.
-Entertain questions from students and make connections between content in Devices and the students’ previous knowledge and relevance for future topics.


-This is used to present a large body of information.

-Checklist: In doing the teachers is expected to;

-Be sure that the lecture is organized, use an outline and make it available before or during the lecture.
-Supplement lectures with slides and/or charts to illustrate concepts and ideas.
-Monitor students’ attention and relate previous knowledge with the present one to widen students understanding.
-Talk clearly and in a manner that clarifies key points and facilitate note taking.


-This stimulates thinking more effectively by a 2-way communcation between the teacher and students

-Checklist: The teacher must;

-Use variety of questions to test if the students have actually gained from the teaching.
-Outline expectation in terms of length, format and thoroughness.
-Provide time for the students to think about answers or questions
-Use questions that require thinking at different levels for instance recall, comprehension, application, analysis and evaluation.

Good luck.