CURRENT WAEC SYLLABUSES FOR MAY/JUNE AND OCT/NOV EXAMS-COMMERCE,ECONOMICS,FIN.ACCOUNTING,GEOGRAPHY

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Commerce

WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION COMMERCE

PREAMBLE
This course embraces trade, aids to trade and elementary aspects of Marketing and Commercial Law.
AIMS
The examination in this subject is meant to test:
(i) candidates’ appreciation of the role of Commerce and its relationship with the other aspects of production,

(ii) candidates’ understanding and appreciation of the basic concepts and principles of Commerce, and

(iii) candidates’ ability to relate the concepts and principles of Commerce to practical situations.

EXAMINATION STRUCTURE
The examination will consist of two papers: – Paper 1 and Paper 2 – both of which must be taken.
PAPER 1: This will consist of 50 compulsory multiple-choice questions which would cover the entire syllabus and will carry 25% of the total marks for the subject. It will
last for 1 hour.
PAPER 2: This will be a 2½ hour paper consisting of 10 essay type questions out of which candidates will be expected to answer any five. All questions carry equal marks, and the paper will carry 75% of the total marks.
DETAILED SYLLABUS
1. INTRODUCTION
Meaning, scope and functions of Commerce, History of Commerce.
2. OCCUPATIONS
Types – Industry, Commerce, Direct and Indirect Services.
3. PRODUCTION
Definition, factors, primary, secondary and tertiary production. Inter-relationship between production and exchange. WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION COMMERCE
4. BUSINESS UNITS
(i) Meaning and objectives of business;
(ii) Forms of Business Units – Sole proprietorship, Partnership, Public and Private Limited Liability Companies, Public Enterprises and Cooperative Societies;

(iii) Formation, characteristics, advantages and disadvantages;

(iv) Dissolution/liquidation

5. BUSINESS CAPITAL AND PROFITS
(i) Meaning and types – authorised/registered/nominal/issued capital, called-up, paid up, capital owned, capital borrowed, liquid/circulating capital;

(ii) Calculation of working capital, the importance of working capital;

(iii) Profit – meaning, types and calculation of profits;

(iv) Turnover – meaning and calculation.

6. TRADE ASSOCIATIONS
(i) Aims and functions of trade associations;

(ii) Chamber of Commerce, Employers’ Association, Consumer Association and Manufacturers’ Association – Aims and functions.

7. TRADE

Purpose and branches of trade – Home Trade and Foreign Trade.
(a) HOME TRADE
(i) Retail Trade – Functions of the Retailer and factors to consider in starting retail business.

Small scale and large scale retailing. Types of Retail outlets, the main characteristics of each.
Trends in Retailing – branding, after-sales service, self service, vending machines, luncheon and fuel vouchers.
(ii) Wholesale Trade – Functions of the wholesaler. Types of wholesalers – Merchant and Agent wholesalers.

(iii) Warehousing – importance, functions and types of warehouses.
WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION COMMERCE

(iv) Forces making for the elimination and survival of the middleman.

(v) Channels of Distribution – Producer – Wholesaler – Retailer – Consumer.

Factors for the choice of the channels.
(b) FOREIGN TRADE
(i) Basic concepts in International Trade – Terms of trade, balance of trade,

balance of payment, counter
trade.
(ii) Export, Import and Entrepot – procedures and documents used. Visible
and Invisible Trade.
(iii) Barriers to International Trade
(iv) Functions of Ports Authority. Customs and Excise Authority, Customs, Excise and Preventive Services and shipping, clearing and forwarding Agents, Export Promotion Council.
8. PURCHASE AND SALE OF GOODS
(i) Procedure and documents;

(ii) Terms of Trade – Trade Discount, Cash discount, Quantity discount, C.O.D.,

C.I.F., F. O. B., E. and O.E.
(iii) Terms of payment – Cash, hire purchase and deferred payment;

(iv) Means of payment – Legal tender, cheques, standing order, bank drafts, stamps, postal orders, money orders, bills of exchange and promissory notes.

9. FINANCE AND FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS
(a) MONEY – Meaning, forms, qualities and functions.
(b) BANKS – Types of Banks – Central Bank, Commercial Banks and
other specialised banks and their features and functions.
Types of accounts – current, savings and fixed deposit
accounts, and their main features.
(c) INSURANCE – Meaning and basic principles of insurance – utmost good
faith, insurable interest, contribution, indemnity and
proximate cause. WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION COMMERCE
(d) TYPES OF INSURANCE – Fire, personal accident, marine, life and
endowment, burglary, insurable and uninsurable risks. Importance of insurance to business and individuals. Procedure for taking an insurance policy.
(e) STOCK EXCHANGE – Meaning and functions, procedure of
transactions and speculations. Types of
securities.
(f) CREDIT – Meaning, types and functions.
(g) CREDIT UNIONS AND THRIFT SOCIETIES – Meaning and aims, functions
and services provided to
members.
10. TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS

(a) TRANSPORT

(i) Meaning and importance;

(ii) Forms of Transport – Land, water, air and pipeline. Advantages and disadvantages of each form.

(iii) Functions of Seaports and Airports.

(b) COMMUNICATION – Meaning, importance and services of Post Office,

Courier Agencies and other communication agents.
11. INTRODUCTION TO MARKETING

(a) MARKETING

(i) Meaning, importance and functions;

(ii) The marketing concept, the marketing mix (4p’s), market segmentation and consumer sovereignty.

(b) ADVERTISING

(i) Meaning, role, types and media;

(ii) Advantages and disadvantages.
WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION COMMERCE

(c) PUBLIC RELATIONS AND CUSTOMER SERVICES

Meaning and importance.
(d) SALES PROMOTION – Trade fairs, exhibitions, gifts and
demonstrations.
(e) PERSONAL SELLING – Meaning and uses.
12. LEGAL ASPECTS OF BUSINESS
(a) (i) Areas of law that relate to business – Contract, Agency, Sale of Goods
Act, Hire Purchase Act; Trade Description Act.
(ii) Rights and obligations of employer and employee;
(iii) Government regulation of business – Registration of business, patents, trade marks and copy rights.

(b) CONSUMER PROTECTION
(i) Need for protection;

(ii) Means of protection – Government legislations, Food and Drugs
Act, Standard Organisation Act, Trade
Description Act, Consumer Association,
Price Control, Product Quality, Factory
Shops and Offices Acts, etc.
13. NATIONALISATION AND INDIGENISATION/DIVESTITURE
(i) Meaning and Aims;

(ii) Advantages and Disadvantages.

14. ECONOMIC GROUPINGS
ECOWAS, Niger Basin Commission (NBC), Lake Chad Basin Commission (LCBC), Mano River Union, European Economic Community (EEC), African Caribbean and Pacific (ACP), International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), International Monetary Fund (IMF), United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) – Objectives and Obstacles. WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION COMMERCE 175
SUGGESTED READING LIST
1. Commerce for Senior Secondary Schools by Odedokun, Udokogu and Ogiyi – Longman Nigeria Publications.

2. Commerce for Senior Scondary Schools by CESAC, Shanelson Publishers, Ibadan.

3. Modern Commercial Knowledge by L. W. T. Stafford.

4. Marketing by G. B. Giles.

5. Basic Marketing by Jerome McCarthy.

Economics

WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION ECONOMICS
PREAMBLE
This syllabus is designed to expose students to the basic economic principles as useful guide to rational decision-making relating to individuals, business, government and society in general; and to enhance their understanding and appreciation of economics not only as an academic field of study but also as a practical subject.
OBJECTIVES
At the end of the three-year course, students are expected to:
1. be acquainted with basic economic principles, concepts and the tools for economic analysis.
2. be familiar with the structure and functioning of economic institutions – commercial, industrial and financial.
3. understand the basis for rational economic decisions.
4. understand and be able to explain the basis and structure of the West African economy, including the roles of agriculture, industry and mining and their contributions to the national income.

5. be able to follow the role and status of the West African countries in international economic relationships.

6. appreciate the problems West African countries encounter in their economic development.

RUBRICS OF THE PAPER;
There will be two papers; Paper 1 will be an objective test of 50 questions to be completed in 50 minutes, and paper 2, an essay-type to be completed in 3 hours. Paper 2 will be divided into 2 sections (A and B). Section A will consist of two data-response questions and candidates must answer one of them. Section B will consist of ten other questions and candidates will be required to answer any four of them. All questions will carry equal marks.
Candidates will in all, be required to answer all questions in Paper 1 and five questions in Paper 2 as spelt out above. WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION ECONOMICS
DETAILED SYLLABUS
1. DEFINITION AND SCOPE OF ECONOMICS
Scarcity and Choice, Scale of preference, Opportunity cost, Economic activities – Production, Distribution and Consumption. Classification of economic activities – Primary, Secondary and Tertiary and their relative contributions in terms of output/income, employment, savings and foreign exchange.
2. TYPES AND BASIC FEATURES OF ECONOMIC SYSTEMS
(a) Types – capitalism, socialism, mixed economy, etc.
(b) Basic features of each.

(c) Economic problems of society and the approaches for solving them under each of the systems.

3. BASIC TOOLS OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS
Tables, graphs and charts. Some basic statistical measures and representations – arithmetic mean, median, mode, and their simple applications.
4. THEORY OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR
Concept of utility (total and marginal utility).
Law of diminishing marginal utility; relation between marginal utility and the demand curve.
5. DEMAND
Concept of demand and laws of demand; types of demand (derived, composite, joint and competitive); factors determining demand for goods and services – price of the commodity, prices of other commodities, income, tastes, price expectations, etc. Distinction between a shift of and movement along a demand curve; concept of elasticity of demand. Types of elasticity of demand and their measurement – price, income and cross elasticities of demand; importance of the concept of elasticity of demand to consumers, producers and government.
6. SUPPLY
Concept of supply and laws of supply; types of supply – composite, complementary and competitive. Factors determining supply – input prices, technology, prices of other commodities, climatic factors, etc. Distinction between the shift of and movement along the supply curve. Concept and measurement of elasticity of supply and its importance to producers and government. WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION ECONOMICS
7. THEORY OF PRICE DETERMINATION
The concept of the market; interaction between demand and supply. Price determination under free and regulated markets. Equilibrium price and quantity in product and factor markets. The effects of changes in supply and demand on equilibrium prices and quantities. Price controls: maximum and minimum price regulations – meaning and their effects; rationing, black market (parallel market).
8. PRODUCTION, THEORY OF COST AND REVENUE
(a) Production – meaning, types: Factors of production (Land, Labour, Capital, Entrepreneurship). Division of labour and specialization; scale of production (Internal and External economies), production possibility curve or frontier; concept of total, average and marginal productivity and law of variable proportions.

(b) (i) Cost concepts: total cost, average cost, marginal cost, variable cost;
fixed cost; short-run and long-run costs.
(ii) Distinction between economist’s and accountant’s view of cost (opportunity cost and money cost).

(iii) Revenue concepts: total, average and marginal revenue; marginal revenue product.

(c) (i) Factors affecting productivity.
(ii) Factors determining the size of firms.

9. MARKET STRUCTURES
Determination of price and output under different structures (Perfect competition, imperfect competition, monopoly). Review of cost and revenue concepts. Price discrimination/dumping.
10. BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS
Types and basic features of business enterprises – sole proprietorship; partnership, Joint-Stock companies (Private and Public), Co-operatives; Statutory Corporations, Joint ventures. Sources of funds. General and basic problems of business enterprises. Privatization and Commercialization as solutions to problems of public enterprises.
11. DISTRIBUTIVE TRADE
Process of distribution, role of wholesalers, retailers and co-operatives; the role of government agencies in product distribution and the problems of distribution. WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION ECONOMICS
12. POPULATION AND LABOUR MARKET
(a) Population – determination and implication of size and growth of
population; theories of population – Malthusian,
Demographic transition theories, etc. Geographical, age,
sex and occupational distribution. Importance and
problems of census. Population and economic
development (under – population, optimum population and
over-population).
(b) Labour Market – Concept of labour force, efficiency and mobility of
labour, factors affecting the size of the labour
force, particularly the population characteristics
(age, sex, occupation, education, etc.); supply of
and demand for labour; wage determination and
concept of unemployment. Trade Unions,
Employers’ Associations, and Government policies
on labour and wages.
13. AGRICULTURE

Structure (e.g. food crops, export crops, livestock, fisheries); systems of agriculture (peasant, commercial, co-operative and state farming); importance of agriculture to the national economy; marketing of agricultural products (commodity boards). Agricultural policies (minimum agricultural prices) problems of agriculture and remedies.
14. INDUSTRIALIZATION
Meaning , types, location of industry, localization. Role of industrialization in economic development. Strategies of industrialization, problems of industrialization, indigenization policy. Public policy towards industrial development.
15. NATIONAL INCOME
Meaning of major national income concepts e.g. Gross Domestic Product, Gross National Product, Net National Product, etc. Different ways of measuring national income and their problems. Uses and limitations of national income data; trends and structure of national income.
16. MONEY AND INFLATION
(a) Money – definition, historical development, types, characteristics and functions. Supply of and demand for money, value of money and the price level.

(b) Inflation: meaning, types, causes, effects and control. Deflation.
WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION ECONOMICS
17. FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS
Types (traditional, Central Bank, Commercial Bank, Development Bank, Mortgage Bank, Merchant Bank , Insurance Companies and building societies); development and functions of financial institutions.
18. PUBLIC FINANCE
Fiscal policy and objectives of public finance; Sources of government revenue, direct and indirect taxation; incidence and effects of taxes, structure of public expenditure (recurrent and capital expenditure); effects of public expenditure. Government budget and the national debt.
19. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND PLANNING

Meaning of economic development; distinction between economic growth and economic development; elements of development planning (reasons for planning, types of plans and problems of planning).
20. INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND BALANCE OF PAYMENTS

(a) International Trade: differences between domestic and international trade, the basis of international trade, commodity terms of trade (definition and measurement), commercial policy (objectives) and instrument – tariffs and direct control.

(b) Balance of Payments: role of money in international transactions, meaning and components of balance of payments, balance of payments disequilibrium, balance of payments adjustments (exchange rate policy, exchange control, monetary and fiscal policies) and financing (the use of reserves and international borrowing).

(c) Economic Integration (objectives, types and features.) Development and problems of economic integration in West Africa (ECOWAS): issues in the new international economic order, trend and structure of West African countries’ external trade.

21. INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC ORGANIZATIONS

Development and role of
– Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

– Economic Commission for Africa (ECA)

– International Monetary Fund (IMF)
WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION ECONOMICS

– International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)

– European Economic Community (EEC)

– African Development Bank (ADB)

– United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)

West African Clearing House, etc. Relevance of such organizations to West African countries.
22. MAJOR NATURAL RESOURCES

Development of major natural resources (petroleum, gold, diamonds, timber, etc).; contributions to West African economies (positive and negative

 FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING

WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The aim of this syllabus is to test:
(i) candidates’ appreciation of the rules and functions of Accounting;

(ii) the candidates’ knowledge of basic accounting principles and their application

to modern business activities.
STRUCTURE OF THE EXAMINATION
The examination will consist of two papers, both of which must be taken.
PAPER 1: This will be of 1 hour duration, comprising 50 multiple-choice/objective questions. This paper will carry 25% of the total marks.
PAPER 2: This will be of 2½ hours duration and will be made up of two sections, A and B.
SECTION A: Theory of Financial Accounting: Candidates will be required
to answer two out of four questions for 30% of the total marks for the paper.
SECTION B: Financial Accounting Practice: Candidates will be required to answer three out of five questions for 45% of the total marks
for the paper.
DETAILED SYLLABUS
TOPICS NOTES
1. Introduction. History, Nature and Functions of Accounting.
Importance of Book-keeping and Accounting.
Users of Accounting information.
2. Principles and Practice of double entry. (a) purpose and functions of source documents:
subsidiary books;
(b) the ledger: classification of Accounts;
(c) cash book: analytical cash book, including
petty cash book; WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING
TOPIC NOTES
(d) preparation of trial balance and treatment
of errors;
(e) the imprest system. Bank reconciliation
statements.
3. The Final Accounts of a Sole Trader. (a) trading, profit and loss accounts; the
balance sheet.
(b) adjustments.
4. Reserves and Provisions. (a) provision for doubtful debts.
(b) provision for discounts.
(c) depreciation: concepts, reasons for,
recording and simple methods:
(i) straight line
(ii) reducing balance
(iii) sum of the year’s digits
(iv) revaluation

(d) amortisation and depletion of fixed assets.
(e) reserves – revenue and capital reserves.
5. Manufacturing Accounts. Simple manufacturing or production accounts
showing various cost classifications.
6. Control Accounts and self-balancing (a) reasons for
ledgers.
(b) types:
(i) Sales Ledger Control
(ii) Purchases Ledger Control

7. Single Entry and Incomplete Records (a) nature
(b) computation of profit from two balance
sheets.
(c) preparation of final accounts from a set of
incomplete records. WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING
TOPICS NOTES
8. Accounts of Not-For-Profit Making (a) receipts and payments accounts.
Organizations.
(b) income and expenditure accounts.
(c) subscription in advance and in arrears.
(d) accumulated fund.
(e) balance sheet.
9. Accounting Concepts and Conventions. nature, significance and limitations.
10. Partnership. (a) introduction
(a) partnership agreements.

(c) capital and current accounts.
(d) profit and loss and appropriation accounts
and balance sheet.
(e) admission of a partner and partnership
dissolution.
Questions will not be set on Garner V.
Murray and piecemeal realisation.
11. Company Accounts. (a) Formation – Statutory requirements.
(b) Issue and redemption of shares –par value
and no par value shares.
(c) Loan Capital – issue and redemption
(d) Final Accounts for internal use only.
(e) Purchase of a Sole Trader by a Company.
(f) Conversion of a Partnership into a
Limited Liability Company, (no
questions will be set on pre and post
incorporation profits).
(g) Interpretation of accounts using Simple
Ratios.
NOTE: Separate questions may be set to meet
statutory requirements of individual
countries. Candidates’ answers must
meet statutory requirements of individual
countries. WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING
TOPICS NOTES
12. Departmental and Branch Accounts. (a) Ascertainment of Departmental and
total profit.
(b) Inter branch transactions excluding
Foreign Branches.
(c) Accounting records kept by the Head
Office and by the branches.
13. Public Sector Accounting. (a) Sources of public revenue.
(b) Capital and recurrent expenditures.
(c) Simple Government Accounting
procedures.
14. Introduction to Data Processing. (a) Development
(b) Steps in data processing
– input data
– processing data (excluding
programming)
– output data

(c) Manual data processing
(d) Mechanical data processing:
(e) Electronic data processing:
the Computer – elements/components,
hardware and software,
installation – factors to
consider.
– Application in an
Accounting
environment.
(f) Advantages and disadvantages of
various data processing systems. WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING

SUGGESTED READING LIST
1. Business Accounting Vol. I and II F. Wood
2. Book-keeping and Accounts (ELBS) Spicer & Peggler
3. Introduction to Accounting for Business Studies F.P. Langley
4. Accounting I and II Jennings
5. Accounting and Finance F. Wood

Geography

WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION
GEOGRAPHY

PREAMBLE
This examination syllabus is based on the assumption that not less than four teaching periods or 2 hours 40 minutes per week will be allocated to the subject during the Senior Secondary School Course.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The examination will test the candidates’ ability to
(i) understand the concepts of differential character and the spatial relationships of
the surface features of the earth;
(ii) understand the concept of man-environment relations (i.e. to examine the life of
man within his physical and cultural environments and to explain their interactions);
(iii) acquire a basic knowledge of the nature and functioning of physical and human
environments, particularly an understanding of their inter-relationships and the
resulting issues;
(iv) organize and formulate principles according to acquired geographical concepts and to apply these principles to interpret and analyse spatial problems in the immediate and wider environments;
(v) develop skills and techniques for accurate, orderly and objective geographical investigations to be carried out both in the classroom and in the immediate environment.
RUBRICS AND EXAMINATION SCHEME
There will be two papers; Paper 1 and Paper 2, both of which must be taken.
PAPER 1: GENERAL GEOGRAPHY, ELEMENTS OF PRACTICAL AND PHYSICAL
GEOGRAPHY. This will be a 2-hour and 40 minutes paper, consisting of two
sections; A and B.
SECTION A: General Geography
This will be a fifty (50) minutes multiple-choice (objective) test consisting of fifty (50) questions drawn to cover the entire Geography syllabus (except elementary surveying). Candidates will be required to attempt all the questions.
WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION
GEOGRAPHY

SECTION B: Elements of Practical and Physical Geography
This will be a 1 hour and 50 minutes paper, consisting of eight (8) questions, of which candidates are expected to answer four. Question 1 will be a compulsory structured question on map reading and interpretation. Candidates are advised not to spend more than 30 minutes on this question.
Candidates will be expected to bring graduated rulers (both metric and imperial), a complete mathematical set, a piece of string and a simple non-programmable calculator.
PAPER 2: HUMAN AND REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY
This will be a 2-hour essay-type paper, consisting of three sections A, B, and C. Candidates will be required to attempt four questions out of nine, choosing at least one from each section.
SECTION A: Human Geography
This will consist of three essay-type questions. Candidates will be required to
attempt at least one of them.
SECTION B: Regional Geography of Candidates’ Home Country
This will consist of three essay-type questions. Candidates will be required to
attempt at least one of them.
SECTION C: Geography of Africa
This will consist of three essay-type questions. Candidates will be required to
attempt at least one of them.
WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION
GEOGRAPHY

DETAILED SYLLABUS
CONTENTS
NOTES
ELEMENTS OF PRACTICAL AND PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY
Map Work
Elementary Surveying
Statistical Maps and Diagrams
Elements of Physical Geography
(i) Rocks
(ii) Major landforms
(iii) Oceans
(iv) Weather and climate
Map reading and interpretation based on a contoured survey map of part of West Africa: scale, measurement of distances, direction and bearing, map reduction and enlargement, identification of physical features such as spurs, valleys, etc. and cultural features such as city walls, settlements, communication routes etc.; measurement of gradients, drawing of cross profiles, inter-visibility, description and explanation of drainage, pattern of communication, settlement and land use.
Chain and Prismatic compass, open and closed traverse, avoiding obstacles in the field.
Graphical representation of statistical data: bar graphs, line graphs, flow charts, pie charts, dot maps, proportional circles, density maps, isopleth maps.
The earth as a planet in relation to the sun. Latitude, longitude and time. Structure of the earth (internal and external).
Types, characteristics, formation and uses.
Mountains, plateau, plains, karst and coastal landforms.
Agencies modify landforms such as weathering, running water, underground water, wind and waves.
Fieldwork covering local landforms such as coastal features, drainage features, gullies, etc.
Ocean basins, salinity, ocean currents (causes, types and effects on the climates of coastlands), water as an environmental resource.
Simple weather study based on local observation, description of the Stevenson’s screen and uses of basic weather instruments e.g. rain gauge, thermometer, barometer, and wind vane, etc.
WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION
GEOGRAPHY

CONTENTS
NOTES
(v) Elements of climate
(vi) Soils
(vii) Vegetation
(viii) Aspects of Environmental Interaction
(ix) Environmental hazards
HUMAN GEOGRAPHY
(i) World Population
(ii) Settlement
(iii) Transportation
Temperature, pressure, wind and precipitation and the factors affecting them e.g. altitude, latitude, ocean currents, land-and-sea breezes, continentality and aspect. Interpretation of climatic charts and data. Classification of climate (Greek and Koppen’s). Major types of climate (Hot climate – equatorial, tropical and desert, temperate climate – warm and cool). The atmosphere as an environmental resource.
Definition, local types and characteristics. Factors and processes of soil formation and soil profile. Tropical soil types. Importance to man and the effects of human activities on soil.
Major types (tropical rain-forest, cool temperate woodland, tropical grassland and temperate grassland); characteristics, distribution, factors affecting their distribution, plant communities. Vegetation as an environmental resource.
Land ecosystem, environmental balance and intervention within the natural environment.
Soil erosion, drought, desert encroachment, deforestation and pollution, causes, effects and prevention of each.
Factors and patterns of growth, distribution and movement; growth rate problems (e.g. Amazon Basin, N.E. of U.S.A., India, Japan, West Coast of South Africa).
Types (rural and urban); patterns and factors affecting location; growth and size; functions of rural and urban settlements (e.g. Western Europe, the Middle East and West Africa).
Types (roads, railways, water, air). Transportation and economic development (movement of people and commodities, national and international trade, diffusion of ideas and technology, national integration); problems of transportation.
WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION
GEOGRAPHY

CONTENTS
NOTES
(iv) Manufacturing Industry
(v) World Trade
REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY OF NIGERIA
REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY OF GHANA
Types (heavy and light industry); Factors of industrial location; contributions to Gross National Product (G.N.P.) and problems.
Factors, major commodities (agricultural, manufactured goods and mineral products); world trade routes, with special emphasis on trade between the candidate’s home country and the outside world.
Nigeria on broad outlines (location, position, size, political divisions, physical setting, population, distribution of mineral and power resources, agriculture, industry and commerce, transportation).
Geographical Regions of Nigeria (Eastern Highlands, Eastern Scarplands, North-central Highlands, Western Highlands, Sokoto Plains, Chad Basin, Niger-Benue Trough, Cross River Basin and Southern Coastlands).
Each of these geographical regions should be treated under the following sub-headings:-
(i) physical setting;
(ii) peoples and population;
(iii) resources and economic activities;
(iv) transportation;
(v) problems of development.
(a) Size and location (within West Africa), administrative structure.
(b) Physical environment (geology, relief, drainage, climate, vegetation and soils).
(c) Population: Size, growth, distribution and density; age/sex structure; fertility, morbidity and mortality, migration.
(d) Settlements: Origin, types (rural – urban), characteristics, hierarchy, landuse, urbanisation processes problems and attempts at solving some of the problems).
(e) Agriculture: Subsistence (intensive and extensive), commercial (vegetable, livestock, dairying, commercial grain); plantation, problems and prospects.
WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION
GEOGRAPHY

CONTENTS
NOTES
REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY OF SIERRA LEONE
(f) Fishing: Inland and ocean (in-shore/off-shore),
methods, types of fish, storage and marketing,
problems and prospects.
(g) Lumbering: Sources of timber, methods of
exploitation, types of species (for internal use and for export), problems and prospects, conservation.
(h) Mining: Types, distribution, methods of
extraction, problems and prospects.
(i) Manufacturing: Types, distribution, factors
influencing location of industries, problems of
industrialization.
(j) Trade and Commerce: Services, transport
and communication, recreation and tourism,
administration.
(k) Energy and Power: Water (Akosombo and
Kpong Hydro-electric Power projects – benefits
and effects), fuelwood and charcoal, Petroleum
and Natural gas (Saltpond), Solar, Wave, Wind
energies (Donkokrom and Kokrobite), Biogas e.g.
cow dung.
(l) Issues of Development and Environmental
Conservation: Rural and regional development, resource management and conservation, environmental pollution e.g. air, water, soil, noise, waste disposal.
Sierra Leone on Broad Outlines
Size and location, physical environment, population and settlements.
Primary Economic Activities
Agriculture, fishing, lumbering, mining and quarrying, relative importance of each activity, problems, prospects and conservation.
Manufacturing
Location of industry, types of industry, problems of manufacturing industry, Energy and Power, water, fuelwood and charcoal, biogas (e.g. cow-dung), hydro-electric power projects e.g. Dodo, Guma, Bumbuna (under construction).
WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION
GEOGRAPHY

CONTENTS
NOTES
REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY OF SENEGAMBIA
FIELDWORK
Transport and Communication
Roads, water, air, the role of transport and communication in economic development (i.e. movement of people and commodities) internal and external trade, diffusion of ideas and technology): problems of transport and communication.
Trade and Tourism
Major commodities of trade (agricultural, manufactured goods, minerals, etc.): pattern of trade (internal and external): problems of trade; development of tourism, problems of tourism, socio-economic effects of tourism.
(a) Size and location, physical environment – relief,
drainage, climate and vegetation.
(b) Economic activities – Farming (subsistence and
cash crops), fishing, livestock rearing, mining,
problems and prospects.
(c) Population – Size, growth, distribution and
migration.
(d) Manufacturing – Types, location, factors
influencing location, problems of industrialization.
(e) Transport and Communication – road, water, rail
and air transport – their roles in economic
development.
(f) Tourism – Main tourism areas, factors responsible
for its development, problems and economic
importance.
Fieldwork on any one of the following topics should be based on local geography of candidate’s home country (This aspect of the syllabus should be examined by schools as part of the continuous assessment and should account for 25% of the total mark allotted to continuous assessment):
(i) Land use (rural or urban):
rural – crop farming (e.g. rice, cocoa, etc).,
mining (e.g. coal, tin, petroleum,
etc.) fishing.
WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION
GEOGRAPHY

CONTENTS
NOTES
GEOGRAPHY OF AFRICA
SELECTED TOPICS
urban – commercial activities, ports,
factories, recreational, etc.
(ii) Market survey – rural or urban.
(iii) Traffic flow – rural or urban.
(iv) Patterns of journey to work – rural or urban.
(v) Rate of erosion in the locality, etc.
Africa on broad outlines – location, size, position, political divisions and associated islands, physical setting (relief, drainage, climate and vegetation); distribution of major minerals.
(a) Lumbering in equatorial Africa (with particular
reference to Cote d’Ivoire and Zaire).
(b) Irrigation agriculture in the Nile Basin and the Niger
Basin.
(c) Plantation agriculture in West and East Africa.
(d) Fruit farming in the Mediterranean Regions of
Africa.
(e) Gold mining in South Africa.
(f) Copper mining in Zaire and Zambia.
(g) Oil production in Nigeria, Algeria and Libya.
(h) Population distribution in West Africa.
(i) International Economic Co-operation in West Africa
(e.g. ECOWAS).
WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION
GEOGRAPHY

SUGGESTED READING LIST
Practical Geography in Africa
Map Reading for West Africa
Map Reading and Interpretation for West Africa
Maps and Diagrams
An Introduction to Mapwork & Practical Geography
Practical Geography for Africa
Surveying
Practical Geography (Mapwork)
Map Reading and Interpretation
General Geography in Diagrams for West Africa
Certificate Physical and Human Geography (West African Edition)
Man’s Physical Environment
Introduction to Physical Geography
Principles of Physical Geography
Climatology and Meteorology
The Study of Landforms

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