JAMB 2014-2015 EXAMINATION SYLLABUS-AGRICULTURE

JAMB 2014-2015 EXAMINATION SYLLABUS-AGRICULTURE

.. jamb hall…war zone?

AGRICULTURE
GENERAL OBJECTIVES

The aim of the Unitied Tertiary Matriculation Examination syllabus in Agriculture is to prepare the eandidates lor the Board’s examination. It is designed to test their achievement of the course objectives, which are to:

1.stimulate and sustain their interest in Agriculture;
2.acquire basic knowledge and practical skills in Agriculture;
3.acquire the knowledge of interpretation and the use of data;
4.stimulate their ability to make deductions using the acquired knowledge in Agriculture

The syllabus is divided into five sections as given below:

A.General Agriculture
B.Agronomy
C.Animal Production
D.Agricultural Economics and Extension
E.Agricultural Technology

DETAILED SYLLABUS

SECTION A: General Agriculture

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

1.Meaning and Scope of Agriculture
a.Definition of Agriculture
b.Branches of Agriculture

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
use the definition of Agriculture in modern terms as it relates to production, processing and marketing differentiate between the various branches of Agriculture

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

2.  Importance of Agriculture e.g. provision  of raw  materials, employment and rural development, e.t.c.

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
relate   the   various   contributions   of Agriculture to economic development in West Africa

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

3.  Agricultural Ecology
a.  Ecological zones of West Africa
b.  Agricultural   products   of each ecological zone
c.  Environmental factors and their effects on crop and livestock production

OBECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
differentiate between the features of the ecological zones in West Africa
classify agricultural products according to each ecological zone
differentiate abiotic from factors affecting agricultural production

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

4. Genetics
a. First and second laws of Mendel
b. Cell division
c. Dominance and recessiveness

OBJECTIVE

Candidates should be able to:
Apply the first and second laws of Mendel to genetics
differentiate between the types of cell division

i.    determine the outcome of genetic crossing involving homozygous and heterozygous traits;
ii.   compute simple probability ratios

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

5. Farm Inputs materials, e.g.planting agrochemicals, e.t.c.

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
classify different types of farm inputs and their uses
Candidates should be able to:
compare various agricultural systems

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

6. History of Agricultural Development in West Africa
a.  Agricultural systems e.g. shifting cultivation,subsistence farming e.tc
b.  Evolution of national research institutes e.g. NCRI, IAR, IAR&T, CRIN, NIFOR, FRIN, RRI, NRCRI, NfflORT, LCRI, e.t.c. and international research institutes e.g. IITA, ILRI, ICRISAT, WARDA e.tc, leading to increased application of science to the development of agriculture.
c.  Agricultural Development Projects (ADPs) e.g. RTEP, FERDAMA programmes
d.  National agricultural programmes such as OFN, NAFPP, NALDA, Green Revolution, NCRPs,NARP, Project Coordinating Unit (PCU) e.t.c
e. Roles of NGOs in agricultural development
examine the roles of NGOs in the development of agriculture  in West Africa

OBJECTIVES

i.  trace the history of research institutes from past to present
ii. asses their role in the development of agriculture
iii.give reasons for the establishments of ADPs
iv. evaluate the contributions of national agricultural programmes
v.  examine the roles of NGOs in the development of
agriculture in West Africa.

TOPIC/CONTENT/NOTES

7. Role of Government in Agricultural Development
a.   Development of fiscal policies favourable to agricultural production e.g.  import duties ban on importation, e.tc.
b.  Government programmes aimed at agricultural development e.g. subsidies, Credit facilities, e.t.c.
c.   Provision of infrastructures e.g. transport systems, communication systems, e.t.c.

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
Evaluate the  effects  of government policies on agricultural development.
i. Identify the various agricultural incentives provided by the Nigeria government
ii. Assess their effects on agricultural development
Compare the various infrastructural facilities provided by government and their uses.

SECTION B: Agronomy

TQPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

1.   Rocks and Soil formation
a.   Factors affecting rock weathering and soil formation
b. i.  Soil profile
ii.  Soil texture and structure
iii. Soil acidity and alkalinity

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
identify major types of rocks arid soils; factors and processes of soil formation.
differentiate between the horizons in a soil profile.
i.  differentiate between the components of soil
ii. compute   the   proportion   of  soil constituents
iii.analyse  soil  into  its  constituents parts
iv. determine the water-holding capacity of soil ,determine the soil pH

TOPIC/CONTENT/NOTES
2.   Soil Water and Soil Conservation
a. Soil water:  its importance, sources, movement, management and conservation
b. Soil conservation, leaching, erosion, importance, causes, revention and control, cropping, burning, oxidation of organic matter and their effects on plant nutrients in the soil.
c. Irrigation and drainage methods

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i.  compare capillary, gravitational and hygroscopic water
ii.  determine water-holding capacity, wilting points and plant available/unavailable water

i.   identify the causes of erosion and leaching
ii.  determine control methods

i.  classify irrigation and drainage systems.
ii. Examine the importance and challenges of irrigation and drainage

TOPIC/CONTENT/NOTES

3.  Soil Fertility
a.Macro and micro-nutrients and their roles in plant nutrition: Carbon and nitrogen cycles
b.The living population of the soil (flora and fauna), and their roles in soil fertility
c. Maintenance of soil fertility: Methods of maintaining soil fertility e.g. use of cover crops,
application of organic manures, e.tx.
d.Nutrient deficiency symptoms e.g. chlorosis, sickle leaves, stunting, apical necrosis e.t.c.

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i. classify plant nutrients

i.  identify factors affecting their availability
II. examine the roles of soil flora and fauna in maintaining soil fertility

i. compare the different methods of maintaining soil fertility.
ii. differentiate between organic  and inorganic fertilizer, and their methods of application

i.  identify the deficiency symptoms and their causes
ii. suggest remedies

TOPIC/CONTENT/NOTES

4. Land Preparation and Soil Tillage
a. Principles and practices of land preparation and soil tillage
b.  Factors affecting choice of tillage methods: Zero tillage, minimum tillage, e.t.c.

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i. compare the different methods of land preparation and soil tillage in relation to different groups crops
ii. Give reason for the advantages and disadvantages of land preparation and soil tillage.
Give reasons for the choice of tillage methods

TOPIC/CONTENT/NOTES

5.  Plant Forms and functions
a. Parts of monocot and dicot plants and their functions
b. The anatomy and morphology of the storage organs of the common crop plants

OBJECTIVES
i.  identify plant parts and their functions.
ii. distinguish between monocot and dicot plants

TOPIC/CONTENT/NOTES

6.Growth, Development and Reproduction
a.Gametogenesis
b.Pollination
c.Fertilization
d.Embryo formation and development

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
examine the process of   gamete formation.
Give reasons  for different types  of pollination.
Analyse the process of fertilization.
Trace the process of embryo formation and development to the formation of seeds and fruits.

TOPIC/CONTENT/NOTES
7.Plant Propagation and Methods
a. Sexual: the use of seeds, seed viability, viability test, seed rate and seed germination
b.  Asexual  (vegetative propagation)  e.g. cutting, budding, grafting, layering, e.t.c.
c.   Nursery and  nursery management

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i.  classify crops propagated by sexual methods.
ii. determine seed viability and seed rate.
iii. differentiate between types of seed germination.
iv. examine the conditions  for seed germination.

classify crops into different vegetative propagation methods.

i.  determine appropriate nursery sites, types; their  advantages     and disadvantages.
ii. apply the techniques of transplanting seedlings

TOPIC/CONTENT/NOTES

8.Cropping Systems, Planting Patterns and Plant Densities
a. Croppingsystems: Monocropping, mixed, multiple, inter, relay, strip and rotational cropping
b. Planting patterns: Broadcasting, row spacing and drilling Plant densities: single, double and multiple stands
c. Plant densities: single, double and multiple stands

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i.  compare cropping systems.
ii. apply different cropping systems to solve problems in agriculture.

differentiate between the various planting patterns.
i. examine the various types of plant densities and their effects on crop yield
ii. compute plant density per hectare

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

9.Crop Husbandry
Common and scientific names, gross morphology, anatomy of storage organs, methods of propagation, husbandry practices, harvesting, processing and storage, common diseases and pests, economic importance of the following groups of crops.
Group 1: Cereals – maize, guinea corn, rice
Group 2: Legumes – cowpea, groundnut, soyabean
Group 3: Tubers – yam, cassava,sweet potatoes
Group 4: Vegetables and Spices -tomatoes, egg plant, pepper, onion, okro,cabbage, amarranthus sp.
Group 5: Fruits – citrus, pineapple, pawpaw
Group 6: Beverages – cocoa, kola, coffee
Group 7: Oils – oil palm, coconut, shearbutter
Group 8: Latex – para rubber
Group 9:   Fibres – jute, cotton sisal hemp
Group 10: Sugars – sugarcane, beet

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i. apply the different methods of crop propagation, husbandry, harvesting, processing and storage for each crop
ii. identify common diseases and pests and their effects on crop yield
iii. determine the economic importance of each of the crops
iv. relate their importance to national economic development.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

10. Pasture and Forage Crops
a. Study of gross morphology, methods of propagation and husbandry of common grasses and legume, and establishment, maintenance, conservation and uses of pastures
b.Study of natural grasslands and their distribution in West Africa
c.Range management

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i. distinguish between the various methods of conserving pastures e.g. hay- and silage-making.
ii. Classify common grasses and legumes used as pastures and Forage
iii. Differentiate between pasture and forage crops by their common and scientific names. relate different vegetational zones to their dominant pasture species determine range types and utilization of range resources in Nigeria
Relate different vegetational zones to their dominant pasture species.
Determine range types and utilization of range resources in Nigeria

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

11.Floriculture
Establishment, maintenance and uses of ornamental trees, shrubs and flowers

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i. distinguish between common ornamental trees, shrubs and flowers
ii. determine their uses and maintenance

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

12.Weeds
a.Gross morphology, methods of reproduction, dispersal and control of weeds
b.Weed control methods – weeding, mulching, cover cropping, tillage, herbicides and trap cropping

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i.   identify weeds with their common and specific names
ii.  classify weeds according to their mode of dispersal
Apply various  weed control methods

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

13.Crop Diseases
Identification of disease – causing organisms both in store and in the field.
A simple account of diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, nematodes and viruses; the nature of the damage, methods of transmission and common methods of control

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i. distinguish between common store and field disease – causing organisms.
ii. relate various disease-causing organisms to the damage caused, symptoms and their mode of spread
iii. apply appropriate control methods

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

14.Crop pests
a. General account of pests of agricultural plants both in the field and in the store, their types, importance, principles and methods of prevention and control
b.Life cycles of: biting insects e.g. grasshopper; boring insects e.g. weevil; sucking insects e.g. aphids and cotton strainer.
c.  Common pesticides and their side effects

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i.   identify the various field and store pests
ii.  assess their economic importance iii. relate various prevention  and control methods to different pests

i.   describe the life cycles of various insects.
ii.   apply the knowledge of the  life cycles   of  insect   pests   to   their prevention and control.

i. differentiate between common pesticides
ii. examine their mode of action on pests

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

15.Forests management (Silviculture)
a.Importance:   Source of wood, pulp,   fibre   and   other   forest products
b.Conservation: regulation, exploitation, regenartion, afforestation, agro-foresrty and taungya system

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
relate various forest products to their uses.
i.   compare different forest conservation methods
ii.  apply the various methods appropriately

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

16.Crop improvement
Methods of crop improvement e.g. introduction, selection, crossing, quarantine e.t.c.

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i.    give reasons for crop improvement
ii.   distinguish  between   various methods of crop improvement.

SECTION C: Animal Production

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

1.Forms and classification of major animals in West Africa
a. species, breeds and distribution
b. external    features    of   cattle, sheep,  goat,  pig,  rabbit  and poultry

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i.   classify  various  breeds  of farm animals
ii.   locate where they are found, identify their characteristic features

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

2.General terminology in animal production
Common terms used in animal husbandry, e.g. calving, kidding, castrate, capon, veal, mutton, e.t.c.

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
use various terms in animal husbandry

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

3.Anatomy and physiology of farm animals
a.   Functions of tissues and organs of farm animals
b.  Animal body systems e.g. digestive (ruminants and non- ruminants), reproductive, respiratory, urinary (excretory) and nervous systems.

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
distinguish between various functions of tissues and organs of farm animals
compare different body system in farm animals

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

4. Reproduction in farm animals
a.Gametogenesis, oestrus cycle, signs of heat and heat periods, secondary sexual characters, gestation periods, parturition and the role of hormones in reproduction.
b.Development, nourishment and birth of young, mammary glands and lactation in farm animals.
c.Egg formation and incubation in poultry.

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i.   give  account  of the  process of reproduction in farm animals
ii.  determine the role of hormones in reproduction
trace the development in farm animals from fertilization to birth trace the process of egg formation and incubation in poultry

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

5.  Animal nutrition
a. Feed nutrients and functions
b. Feeds and feeding: Simple ration formulation – balanced ration, common pasture/forage crops e.g. guinea grass, elephant grass, giant star grass.
Andropogan sp, calopogonium sp. Hay and silage preparation, different types of rations, namely maintenance ration and production ration
c.Nutrient deficiencies: Causes and symptoms of malnutrition and their correction in farm animals

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
identify the various feed nutrients, their sources and functions.
i.   Differentiate between the types ofanimal feeds and their formulation
ii.  Relate the various types of rations to different classes of livestock.
i.  Trace symptoms to nutrient deficiencies in farm animals
ii.  Apply appropriate corrective measures to nutrient deficiencies in farm animals

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

6.  Livestock management
Housing, feeding, sanitation  and veterinary care of ruminants, pigs, rabbits and poultry under intensive, semi-intensive and extensive systems of management from birth to slaughter

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
apply the different management practices for farm animals

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

7. Animal Health
a.  Animal diseases (pathology)
i.   Environmental factors predisposing animals to diseases; casual organisms, symptoms, transmission and effects
ii. Preventive and curative methods for diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa
b.Parasites (parasitology)
i. Life cycles and economic importance of livestock parasites e.g. endoparasites, ectoparasites and disease vectors
ii. Prevention and control
-Diping
-Spraying
-Deworming
-sanitation

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i.  identify diseases of farm animals and causative agents
ii. classify livestock diseases, based on symptoms and mode of transmission.
iii.apply appropriate preventive and curative measures against diseases caused by theses pathogens.
i.  classify livestock parasite
ii. determine   their  role   in   disease transmission
iii.trace life cycles of parasites from egg to adult stage

apply appropriate prevention and control methods against livestock parasites

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

8.  Fisheries and Wildlife

a. Fish culture systems Common types of fisheries e. g Tilapia, Catfish, etc.
i.  Extensive systems: inland and deep sea fishing, lakes and rivers.
ii. Semi-intensive systems: dams
iii. Intensive systems: fish pond
Factors to consider in pond establishment and pond management e.g. pond fertilization, liming and silting.

b.  Fish harvesting and processing methods
i.   Use of drag nets, hook and line, etc.
ii.  Curing, sun-drying and smoking.
iii. Fishery regulations

c.   Wildlife management
Habit conservation, feeding, domestication, harvesting, processing and wildlife regulations.

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i.   Identify the common types of fishes in West Africa.
ii.  Differentiate between various systems of fish farming in West Africa.
iii. Determine the factors to be considered in intensive farming.

i.    assess the advantages and disadvantages of different fish harvesting and processing methods
ii.   use the various methods of catching fish.
iii.   apply the various methods of fish preservation apply fishery regulations in Nigeria.

i.     Identify animals found in West Africa game reserves.
ii.   Give reasons for the establishment of game reserves
iii.  Apply common wildlife regulations.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

9. Animal Improvement
Methods of animals improvement e. g. introduction, breeding, quarantine and selection: Breeding systems  –  inbreeding, line-breeding, cross-breeding, artificial insemination

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i.    give reasons for animal improvement
ii.   differentiate between the various methods of animal improvement.

SECTION D: Agriculture Economics and Extension

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

1.Factors of agricultural production
a.Land
b.Labour
c.Capital
d.Management

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i.identify the various forms of land
ii.examine      their      effects agriculture.
iii.differentiate between the various features of land and their effects on land use
differentiate  between  the  types  sources of labour and their effects on agricultural production.
Compare the sources of capital and associated problems.
Determine the function of a farm manager in an agricultural enterprise

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

2.Basic Economic Principles
a.Demand and supply
b.production function:
Input/input, Output/output, Input/output relationship; stages of production, concepts of diminishing returns, scale of preference and choice.

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i.    relate demand to supply in agricultural production.
ii.   interpret geographicalrepresentation of demand and supply

i.    relate input to output.
ii.   deduce economic concepts from graphic representation.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

3.Characteristic Features of Agricultural Production
Smallness of farm holdings: biological limits of farm production and susceptibility of farm production to climate, seasonality of farm productions, price elasticity in demand and supply of agricultural produce.

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i.     Distinguish between the common features of agricultural production and produce.
ii.    Compute elasticity of demands and supply.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

4.  Labour Management
a.  Labour relations: Supervision, etc.
b.  Types of labour: Permanent labour etc.
c.  National labour laws andregulations

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i.   identify the various ways of achieving labour efficiency.
ii.  differentiate between the various types and sources of labour.
iii. apply national labour laws and regulations

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

5.Farm Management
a.Qualities, functions and problems of farm manager
b.Records and record-keeping: Types and importance of record¬ keeping – livestock records profit and loss account book.
c.Stock evaluation, gross and net profits in farm management

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
Identify the qualities, functions and problems of a farm manager
i.  Differentiate between the types of farm records.
ii. Give reasons for keeping farm records.
Compare gross and net margins.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

6.Marketing of Agricultural
Produce
a. Importance of Marketing
b. Marketing channels
c. Characteristic features of agricultural product affecting their marketing.

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
Evaluate the importance of agricultural marketing
i.    Classify marketing agents and their functions
ii.    Determine the various ways  in which  marketing  channels  pose problems
in    Agricultural production
Determine the characteristics of agricultural products affecting their marketing

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

7.  Agricultural Extension
a. Meaning and importance
b. The role of Agricultural Development programmes, universities, research institutes and farmers’ organizations (Cooperative societies)
c. Extension methods including demonstration plots, use of visual aids, mass media, etc.
d. Problems of agricultural extension in West Africa and possible solutions.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:
i.  identify the importance of agricultural extension
ii. analyse the roles of government and non-governmental organizations in agricultural extension education.
iii. differentiate between the various extension methods.

i.    Examine the problems of agricultural extension in West Africa.
ii.   Provide possible solutions.

SECTION E: Agricultural Technology

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

1.  Surveying and farmstead Planning
a. Meaning and importance
b.Common surveying equipment, their uses and care
c. Common survey methods
d. Principles of farmstead outlay.

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i.   examine the relevance of farm survey to agriculture
ii.  classify common survey equipment, their uses and care.
iii. differentiate between the commonsurvey methods
iv. apply survey principles to farmsteadoutlay.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

2.  Simple farm tools

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i.Identify simple farm tools
ii.Use and maintain farm tools
iii.Compare the advantages and  disadvantages of simple farm tools

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

3.  Farm Machinery
a.Types e.g. ploughs, harrows, etc
b.Uses and maintenance of farm machinery

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
identify common farm machines and equipment’
i:   classify farm machinery according to their uses
ii.   apply appropriate maintenance – routines on farm machines.
iii.  operate farm machines and equipment.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

4.Mechanization and sources of farm power
a.Sources of farm power: e. g. animal and machines
b.Advantages and disadvantages of mechanization of agriculture
c.Problems and prospects of mechanized agriculture in West Africa

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i.   identify sources of farm power and their application
ii.  distinguish between the advantages and disadvantages of mechanization
iii. assess the problems and prospects of mechanized agriculture in West Africa

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

5.Processing and storage
a. Processing: traditional and modern methods of food processing e.g. gari, rice and groundnut processing, etc.
b. Storage

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i.  identify the importance of agricultural processing
ii. differentiate between the various methods of processing agricultural produce.

i.compare different storage method
ii. apply different storage methods.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

6.  Introduction to biotechnology
Basic terms, e.g. tissue, culture, another culture and genetic engineering

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i.    use basic terms in biotechnology
ii.   provide reasons for the importance of biotechnology

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

7.  Computers in Agriculture
a. Features of computers
b. Uses of computers in agriculture: disease and weather forecasting ration formulation, database and simulation studies, etc.

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i.  identify the various components of the computer
ii. use the computer to enhance agricultural practices.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

8.   introduction to agricultural research and statistics
a. Basic concepts in agricultural experiments
b. Interpretation of results, e.g. measures of central tendency and experimental errors.

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
use basic concepts in agricultural experiments
i.  draw inferences from experimental results
ii. compare simple measures of central tendency

RECOMMENDED TEXTS
Adeniyi, M. O. et al (1999) Agricultural Science: Countdown to Senior Secondary Certificate Examine, Ibadan: Evans
Akinsanmi, A. O. (2000) Junior Secondary Agricultural Science, Uk:   Longman
Akinsanmi, O. A. (2000) Senior Secondary Agricultural Science, Uk:   Longman
Anthonio, Q. B. O. (1999) General Agriculture for West Africa, London:  George Allen and Unwin
Daramola, A. M. et. Al (1999) Agricultural Science for SSCE and JME, Ibadan: University Press
Falusi, A. O. and Adeleye, I. O. A (2000) Agricultural Science for Junior Secondary Schools Books 1-3, Ibadan: Onibonoje
Komolafe, M. F. et al (1981) Agricultural Science for West African Schools and Colleges 2nd Edition, Ibadan: University Press Ltd.
Komolafe, M. F. et al (2004) Agricultural Science for senior secondary Schools 1, 2 and 3, Ibadan: University Press Ltd.
Komolafe, M. F. et al (2004) Practical Agriculture for West African Schools and Colleges, (2nd Edition), Ibadan: University Press Ltd.
Philips T. A. (1986) Agricultural Notebook, Lagos: Longman
STAN   (1999)  Agricultural Science for Senior Secondary Schools,   Lagos: Longman,

AGRICULTURE
GENERAL OBJECTIVES

The aim of the Unitied Tertiary Matriculation Examination syllabus in Agriculture is to prepare the eandidates lor the Board’s examination. It is designed to test their achievement of the course objectives, which are to:

1.stimulate and sustain their interest in Agriculture;
2.acquire basic knowledge and practical skills in Agriculture;
3.acquire the knowledge of interpretation and the use of data;
4.stimulate their ability to make deductions using the acquired knowledge in Agriculture

The syllabus is divided into five sections as given below:

A.General Agriculture
B.Agronomy
C.Animal Production
D.Agricultural Economics and Extension
E.Agricultural Technology

DETAILED SYLLABUS

SECTION A: General Agriculture

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

1.Meaning and Scope of Agriculture
a.Definition of Agriculture
b.Branches of Agriculture

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
use the definition of Agriculture in modern terms as it relates to production, processing and marketing differentiate between the various branches of Agriculture

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

2.  Importance of Agriculture e.g. provision  of raw  materials, employment and rural development, e.t.c.

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
relate   the   various   contributions   of Agriculture to economic development in West Africa

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

3.  Agricultural Ecology
a.  Ecological zones of West Africa
b.  Agricultural   products   of each ecological zone
c.  Environmental factors and their effects on crop and livestock production

OBECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
differentiate between the features of the ecological zones in West Africa
classify agricultural products according to each ecological zone
differentiate abiotic from factors affecting agricultural production

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

4. Genetics
a. First and second laws of Mendel
b. Cell division
c. Dominance and recessiveness

OBJECTIVE

Candidates should be able to:
Apply the first and second laws of Mendel to genetics
differentiate between the types of cell division

i.    determine the outcome of genetic crossing involving homozygous and heterozygous traits;
ii.   compute simple probability ratios

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

5. Farm Inputs materials, e.g.planting agrochemicals, e.t.c.

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
classify different types of farm inputs and their uses
Candidates should be able to:
compare various agricultural systems

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

6. History of Agricultural Development in West Africa
a.  Agricultural systems e.g. shifting cultivation,subsistence farming e.tc
b.  Evolution of national research institutes e.g. NCRI, IAR, IAR&T, CRIN, NIFOR, FRIN, RRI, NRCRI, NfflORT, LCRI, e.t.c. and international research institutes e.g. IITA, ILRI, ICRISAT, WARDA e.tc, leading to increased application of science to the development of agriculture.
c.  Agricultural Development Projects (ADPs) e.g. RTEP, FERDAMA programmes
d.  National agricultural programmes such as OFN, NAFPP, NALDA, Green Revolution, NCRPs,NARP, Project Coordinating Unit (PCU) e.t.c
e. Roles of NGOs in agricultural development
examine the roles of NGOs in the development of agriculture  in West Africa

OBJECTIVES

i.  trace the history of research institutes from past to present
ii. asses their role in the development of agriculture
iii.give reasons for the establishments of ADPs
iv. evaluate the contributions of national agricultural programmes
v.  examine the roles of NGOs in the development of
agriculture in West Africa.

TOPIC/CONTENT/NOTES

7. Role of Government in Agricultural Development
a.   Development of fiscal policies favourable to agricultural production e.g.  import duties ban on importation, e.tc.
b.  Government programmes aimed at agricultural development e.g. subsidies, Credit facilities, e.t.c.
c.   Provision of infrastructures e.g. transport systems, communication systems, e.t.c.

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
Evaluate the  effects  of government policies on agricultural development.
i. Identify the various agricultural incentives provided by the Nigeria government
ii. Assess their effects on agricultural development
Compare the various infrastructural facilities provided by government and their uses.

SECTION B: Agronomy

TQPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

1.   Rocks and Soil formation
a.   Factors affecting rock weathering and soil formation
b. i.  Soil profile
ii.  Soil texture and structure
iii. Soil acidity and alkalinity

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
identify major types of rocks arid soils; factors and processes of soil formation.
differentiate between the horizons in a soil profile.
i.  differentiate between the components of soil
ii. compute   the   proportion   of  soil constituents
iii.analyse  soil  into  its  constituents parts
iv. determine the water-holding capacity of soil ,determine the soil pH

TOPIC/CONTENT/NOTES
2.   Soil Water and Soil Conservation
a. Soil water:  its importance, sources, movement, management and conservation
b. Soil conservation, leaching, erosion, importance, causes, revention and control, cropping, burning, oxidation of organic matter and their effects on plant nutrients in the soil.
c. Irrigation and drainage methods

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i.  compare capillary, gravitational and hygroscopic water
ii.  determine water-holding capacity, wilting points and plant available/unavailable water

i.   identify the causes of erosion and leaching
ii.  determine control methods

i.  classify irrigation and drainage systems.
ii. Examine the importance and challenges of irrigation and drainage

TOPIC/CONTENT/NOTES

3.  Soil Fertility
a.Macro and micro-nutrients and their roles in plant nutrition: Carbon and nitrogen cycles
b.The living population of the soil (flora and fauna), and their roles in soil fertility
c. Maintenance of soil fertility: Methods of maintaining soil fertility e.g. use of cover crops,
application of organic manures, e.tx.
d.Nutrient deficiency symptoms e.g. chlorosis, sickle leaves, stunting, apical necrosis e.t.c.

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i. classify plant nutrients

i.  identify factors affecting their availability
II. examine the roles of soil flora and fauna in maintaining soil fertility

i. compare the different methods of maintaining soil fertility.
ii. differentiate between organic  and inorganic fertilizer, and their methods of application

i.  identify the deficiency symptoms and their causes
ii. suggest remedies

TOPIC/CONTENT/NOTES

4. Land Preparation and Soil Tillage
a. Principles and practices of land preparation and soil tillage
b.  Factors affecting choice of tillage methods: Zero tillage, minimum tillage, e.t.c.

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i. compare the different methods of land preparation and soil tillage in relation to different groups crops
ii. Give reason for the advantages and disadvantages of land preparation and soil tillage.
Give reasons for the choice of tillage methods

TOPIC/CONTENT/NOTES

5.  Plant Forms and functions
a. Parts of monocot and dicot plants and their functions
b. The anatomy and morphology of the storage organs of the common crop plants

OBJECTIVES
i.  identify plant parts and their functions.
ii. distinguish between monocot and dicot plants

TOPIC/CONTENT/NOTES

6.Growth, Development and Reproduction
a.Gametogenesis
b.Pollination
c.Fertilization
d.Embryo formation and development

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
examine the process of   gamete formation.
Give reasons  for different types  of pollination.
Analyse the process of fertilization.
Trace the process of embryo formation and development to the formation of seeds and fruits.

TOPIC/CONTENT/NOTES
7.Plant Propagation and Methods
a. Sexual: the use of seeds, seed viability, viability test, seed rate and seed germination
b.  Asexual  (vegetative propagation)  e.g. cutting, budding, grafting, layering, e.t.c.
c.   Nursery and  nursery management

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i.  classify crops propagated by sexual methods.
ii. determine seed viability and seed rate.
iii. differentiate between types of seed germination.
iv. examine the conditions  for seed germination.

classify crops into different vegetative propagation methods.

i.  determine appropriate nursery sites, types; their  advantages     and disadvantages.
ii. apply the techniques of transplanting seedlings

TOPIC/CONTENT/NOTES

8.Cropping Systems, Planting Patterns and Plant Densities
a. Croppingsystems: Monocropping, mixed, multiple, inter, relay, strip and rotational cropping
b. Planting patterns: Broadcasting, row spacing and drilling Plant densities: single, double and multiple stands
c. Plant densities: single, double and multiple stands

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i.  compare cropping systems.
ii. apply different cropping systems to solve problems in agriculture.

differentiate between the various planting patterns.
i. examine the various types of plant densities and their effects on crop yield
ii. compute plant density per hectare

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

9.Crop Husbandry
Common and scientific names, gross morphology, anatomy of storage organs, methods of propagation, husbandry practices, harvesting, processing and storage, common diseases and pests, economic importance of the following groups of crops.
Group 1: Cereals – maize, guinea corn, rice
Group 2: Legumes – cowpea, groundnut, soyabean
Group 3: Tubers – yam, cassava,sweet potatoes
Group 4: Vegetables and Spices -tomatoes, egg plant, pepper, onion, okro,cabbage, amarranthus sp.
Group 5: Fruits – citrus, pineapple, pawpaw
Group 6: Beverages – cocoa, kola, coffee
Group 7: Oils – oil palm, coconut, shearbutter
Group 8: Latex – para rubber
Group 9:   Fibres – jute, cotton sisal hemp
Group 10: Sugars – sugarcane, beet

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i. apply the different methods of crop propagation, husbandry, harvesting, processing and storage for each crop
ii. identify common diseases and pests and their effects on crop yield
iii. determine the economic importance of each of the crops
iv. relate their importance to national economic development.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

10. Pasture and Forage Crops
a. Study of gross morphology, methods of propagation and husbandry of common grasses and legume, and establishment, maintenance, conservation and uses of pastures
b.Study of natural grasslands and their distribution in West Africa
c.Range management

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i. distinguish between the various methods of conserving pastures e.g. hay- and silage-making.
ii. Classify common grasses and legumes used as pastures and Forage
iii. Differentiate between pasture and forage crops by their common and scientific names. relate different vegetational zones to their dominant pasture species determine range types and utilization of range resources in Nigeria
Relate different vegetational zones to their dominant pasture species.
Determine range types and utilization of range resources in Nigeria

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

11.Floriculture
Establishment, maintenance and uses of ornamental trees, shrubs and flowers

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i. distinguish between common ornamental trees, shrubs and flowers
ii. determine their uses and maintenance

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

12.Weeds
a.Gross morphology, methods of reproduction, dispersal and control of weeds
b.Weed control methods – weeding, mulching, cover cropping, tillage, herbicides and trap cropping

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i.   identify weeds with their common and specific names
ii.  classify weeds according to their mode of dispersal
Apply various  weed control methods

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

13.Crop Diseases
Identification of disease – causing organisms both in store and in the field.
A simple account of diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, nematodes and viruses; the nature of the damage, methods of transmission and common methods of control

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i. distinguish between common store and field disease – causing organisms.
ii. relate various disease-causing organisms to the damage caused, symptoms and their mode of spread
iii. apply appropriate control methods

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

14.Crop pests
a. General account of pests of agricultural plants both in the field and in the store, their types, importance, principles and methods of prevention and control
b.Life cycles of: biting insects e.g. grasshopper; boring insects e.g. weevil; sucking insects e.g. aphids and cotton strainer.
c.  Common pesticides and their side effects

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i.   identify the various field and store pests
ii.  assess their economic importance iii. relate various prevention  and control methods to different pests

i.   describe the life cycles of various insects.
ii.   apply the knowledge of the  life cycles   of  insect   pests   to   their prevention and control.

i. differentiate between common pesticides
ii. examine their mode of action on pests

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

15.Forests management (Silviculture)
a.Importance:   Source of wood, pulp,   fibre   and   other   forest products
b.Conservation: regulation, exploitation, regenartion, afforestation, agro-foresrty and taungya system

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
relate various forest products to their uses.
i.   compare different forest conservation methods
ii.  apply the various methods appropriately

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

16.Crop improvement
Methods of crop improvement e.g. introduction, selection, crossing, quarantine e.t.c.

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i.    give reasons for crop improvement
ii.   distinguish  between   various methods of crop improvement.

SECTION C: Animal Production

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

1.Forms and classification of major animals in West Africa
a. species, breeds and distribution
b. external    features    of   cattle, sheep,  goat,  pig,  rabbit  and poultry

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i.   classify  various  breeds  of farm animals
ii.   locate where they are found, identify their characteristic features

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

2.General terminology in animal production
Common terms used in animal husbandry, e.g. calving, kidding, castrate, capon, veal, mutton, e.t.c.

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
use various terms in animal husbandry

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

3.Anatomy and physiology of farm animals
a.   Functions of tissues and organs of farm animals
b.  Animal body systems e.g. digestive (ruminants and non- ruminants), reproductive, respiratory, urinary (excretory) and nervous systems.

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
distinguish between various functions of tissues and organs of farm animals
compare different body system in farm animals

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

4. Reproduction in farm animals
a.Gametogenesis, oestrus cycle, signs of heat and heat periods, secondary sexual characters, gestation periods, parturition and the role of hormones in reproduction.
b.Development, nourishment and birth of young, mammary glands and lactation in farm animals.
c.Egg formation and incubation in poultry.

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i.   give  account  of the  process of reproduction in farm animals
ii.  determine the role of hormones in reproduction
trace the development in farm animals from fertilization to birth trace the process of egg formation and incubation in poultry

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

5.  Animal nutrition
a. Feed nutrients and functions
b. Feeds and feeding: Simple ration formulation – balanced ration, common pasture/forage crops e.g. guinea grass, elephant grass, giant star grass.
Andropogan sp, calopogonium sp. Hay and silage preparation, different types of rations, namely maintenance ration and production ration
c.Nutrient deficiencies: Causes and symptoms of malnutrition and their correction in farm animals

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
identify the various feed nutrients, their sources and functions.
i.   Differentiate between the types ofanimal feeds and their formulation
ii.  Relate the various types of rations to different classes of livestock.
i.  Trace symptoms to nutrient deficiencies in farm animals
ii.  Apply appropriate corrective measures to nutrient deficiencies in farm animals

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

6.  Livestock management
Housing, feeding, sanitation  and veterinary care of ruminants, pigs, rabbits and poultry under intensive, semi-intensive and extensive systems of management from birth to slaughter

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
apply the different management practices for farm animals

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

7. Animal Health
a.  Animal diseases (pathology)
i.   Environmental factors predisposing animals to diseases; casual organisms, symptoms, transmission and effects
ii. Preventive and curative methods for diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa
b.Parasites (parasitology)
i. Life cycles and economic importance of livestock parasites e.g. endoparasites, ectoparasites and disease vectors
ii. Prevention and control
-Diping
-Spraying
-Deworming
-sanitation

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i.  identify diseases of farm animals and causative agents
ii. classify livestock diseases, based on symptoms and mode of transmission.
iii.apply appropriate preventive and curative measures against diseases caused by theses pathogens.
i.  classify livestock parasite
ii. determine   their  role   in   disease transmission
iii.trace life cycles of parasites from egg to adult stage

apply appropriate prevention and control methods against livestock parasites

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

8.  Fisheries and Wildlife

a. Fish culture systems Common types of fisheries e. g Tilapia, Catfish, etc.
i.  Extensive systems: inland and deep sea fishing, lakes and rivers.
ii. Semi-intensive systems: dams
iii. Intensive systems: fish pond
Factors to consider in pond establishment and pond management e.g. pond fertilization, liming and silting.

b.  Fish harvesting and processing methods
i.   Use of drag nets, hook and line, etc.
ii.  Curing, sun-drying and smoking.
iii. Fishery regulations

c.   Wildlife management
Habit conservation, feeding, domestication, harvesting, processing and wildlife regulations.

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i.   Identify the common types of fishes in West Africa.
ii.  Differentiate between various systems of fish farming in West Africa.
iii. Determine the factors to be considered in intensive farming.

i.    assess the advantages and disadvantages of different fish harvesting and processing methods
ii.   use the various methods of catching fish.
iii.   apply the various methods of fish preservation apply fishery regulations in Nigeria.

i.     Identify animals found in West Africa game reserves.
ii.   Give reasons for the establishment of game reserves
iii.  Apply common wildlife regulations.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

9. Animal Improvement
Methods of animals improvement e. g. introduction, breeding, quarantine and selection: Breeding systems  –  inbreeding, line-breeding, cross-breeding, artificial insemination

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i.    give reasons for animal improvement
ii.   differentiate between the various methods of animal improvement.

SECTION D: Agriculture Economics and Extension

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

1.Factors of agricultural production
a.Land
b.Labour
c.Capital
d.Management

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i.identify the various forms of land
ii.examine      their      effects agriculture.
iii.differentiate between the various features of land and their effects on land use
differentiate  between  the  types  sources of labour and their effects on agricultural production.
Compare the sources of capital and associated problems.
Determine the function of a farm manager in an agricultural enterprise

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

2.Basic Economic Principles
a.Demand and supply
b.production function:
Input/input, Output/output, Input/output relationship; stages of production, concepts of diminishing returns, scale of preference and choice.

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i.    relate demand to supply in agricultural production.
ii.   interpret geographicalrepresentation of demand and supply

i.    relate input to output.
ii.   deduce economic concepts from graphic representation.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

3.Characteristic Features of Agricultural Production
Smallness of farm holdings: biological limits of farm production and susceptibility of farm production to climate, seasonality of farm productions, price elasticity in demand and supply of agricultural produce.

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i.     Distinguish between the common features of agricultural production and produce.
ii.    Compute elasticity of demands and supply.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

4.  Labour Management
a.  Labour relations: Supervision, etc.
b.  Types of labour: Permanent labour etc.
c.  National labour laws andregulations

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i.   identify the various ways of achieving labour efficiency.
ii.  differentiate between the various types and sources of labour.
iii. apply national labour laws and regulations

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

5.Farm Management
a.Qualities, functions and problems of farm manager
b.Records and record-keeping: Types and importance of record¬ keeping – livestock records profit and loss account book.
c.Stock evaluation, gross and net profits in farm management

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
Identify the qualities, functions and problems of a farm manager
i.  Differentiate between the types of farm records.
ii. Give reasons for keeping farm records.
Compare gross and net margins.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

6.Marketing of Agricultural
Produce
a. Importance of Marketing
b. Marketing channels
c. Characteristic features of agricultural product affecting their marketing.

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
Evaluate the importance of agricultural marketing
i.    Classify marketing agents and their functions
ii.    Determine the various ways  in which  marketing  channels  pose problems
in    Agricultural production
Determine the characteristics of agricultural products affecting their marketing

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

7.  Agricultural Extension
a. Meaning and importance
b. The role of Agricultural Development programmes, universities, research institutes and farmers’ organizations (Cooperative societies)
c. Extension methods including demonstration plots, use of visual aids, mass media, etc.
d. Problems of agricultural extension in West Africa and possible solutions.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:
i.  identify the importance of agricultural extension
ii. analyse the roles of government and non-governmental organizations in agricultural extension education.
iii. differentiate between the various extension methods.

i.    Examine the problems of agricultural extension in West Africa.
ii.   Provide possible solutions.

SECTION E: Agricultural Technology

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

1.  Surveying and farmstead Planning
a. Meaning and importance
b.Common surveying equipment, their uses and care
c. Common survey methods
d. Principles of farmstead outlay.

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i.   examine the relevance of farm survey to agriculture
ii.  classify common survey equipment, their uses and care.
iii. differentiate between the commonsurvey methods
iv. apply survey principles to farmsteadoutlay.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

2.  Simple farm tools

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i.Identify simple farm tools
ii.Use and maintain farm tools
iii.Compare the advantages and  disadvantages of simple farm tools

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

3.  Farm Machinery
a.Types e.g. ploughs, harrows, etc
b.Uses and maintenance of farm machinery

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
identify common farm machines and equipment’
i:   classify farm machinery according to their uses
ii.   apply appropriate maintenance – routines on farm machines.
iii.  operate farm machines and equipment.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

4.Mechanization and sources of farm power
a.Sources of farm power: e. g. animal and machines
b.Advantages and disadvantages of mechanization of agriculture
c.Problems and prospects of mechanized agriculture in West Africa

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i.   identify sources of farm power and their application
ii.  distinguish between the advantages and disadvantages of mechanization
iii. assess the problems and prospects of mechanized agriculture in West Africa

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

5.Processing and storage
a. Processing: traditional and modern methods of food processing e.g. gari, rice and groundnut processing, etc.
b. Storage

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i.  identify the importance of agricultural processing
ii. differentiate between the various methods of processing agricultural produce.

i.compare different storage method
ii. apply different storage methods.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

6.  Introduction to biotechnology
Basic terms, e.g. tissue, culture, another culture and genetic engineering

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i.    use basic terms in biotechnology
ii.   provide reasons for the importance of biotechnology

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

7.  Computers in Agriculture
a. Features of computers
b. Uses of computers in agriculture: disease and weather forecasting ration formulation, database and simulation studies, etc.

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i.  identify the various components of the computer
ii. use the computer to enhance agricultural practices.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

8.   introduction to agricultural research and statistics
a. Basic concepts in agricultural experiments
b. Interpretation of results, e.g. measures of central tendency and experimental errors.

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
use basic concepts in agricultural experiments
i.  draw inferences from experimental results
ii. compare simple measures of central tendency

RECOMMENDED TEXTS
Adeniyi, M. O. et al (1999) Agricultural Science: Countdown to Senior Secondary Certificate Examine, Ibadan: Evans
Akinsanmi, A. O. (2000) Junior Secondary Agricultural Science, Uk:   Longman
Akinsanmi, O. A. (2000) Senior Secondary Agricultural Science, Uk:   Longman
Anthonio, Q. B. O. (1999) General Agriculture for West Africa, London:  George Allen and Unwin
Daramola, A. M. et. Al (1999) Agricultural Science for SSCE and JME, Ibadan: University Press
Falusi, A. O. and Adeleye, I. O. A (2000) Agricultural Science for Junior Secondary Schools Books 1-3, Ibadan: Onibonoje
Komolafe, M. F. et al (1981) Agricultural Science for West African Schools and Colleges 2nd Edition, Ibadan: University Press Ltd.
Komolafe, M. F. et al (2004) Agricultural Science for senior secondary Schools 1, 2 and 3, Ibadan: University Press Ltd.
Komolafe, M. F. et al (2004) Practical Agriculture for West African Schools and Colleges, (2nd Edition), Ibadan: University Press Ltd.
Philips T. A. (1986) Agricultural Notebook, Lagos: Longman
STAN   (1999)  Agricultural Science for Senior Secondary Schools,   Lagos: Longman,

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