Othello-About Shakespearean Theater
Before Shakespeare’s time and during his boyhood, troupes of actors performed wherever they could - in halls, courts, courtyards, and any other open spaces available. However, in 1574, when Shakespeare was ten years old, the Common Council passed a law requiring plays and theaters in London to be licensed. In 1576, actor and future Lord Chamberlain’s Man James Burbage built the first permanent theater, called “The Theatre”, outside London city walls. After this many more theaters were established, including the Globe Theatre, which was where most of Shakespeare’s plays premiered.
Elizabethan theaters were generally modeled after the design of the original Theatre. Built of wood, these theaters were comprised of three tiers of seats in a circular shape, with a stage area on one side of the circle. The audience’s seats and part of the stage were roofed, but much of the main stage and the area in front of the stage in the center of the circle were open to the elements. About 1,500 audience members could pay extra money to sit in the covered seating areas, while about 800 “groundlings” paid less money to stand in this open area before the stage. The stage itself was divided into three levels: a main stage area with doors at the rear and a curtained area in the back for “discovery scenes”; an upper, canopied area called “heaven” for balcony scenes; and an area under the stage called “hell,” accessed by a trap door in the stage. There were dressing rooms located behind the stage, but no curtain in the front of the stage, which meant that scenes had to flow into each other, and “dead bodies” had to be dragged off.
Performances took place during the day, using natural light from the open center of the theater. Since there could be no dramatic lighting and there was very little scenery or props, audiences relied on the actors’ lines and stage directions to determine the time of day and year, the weather, location, and mood of the scenes. Shakespeare’s plays masterfully supply this information. For example, in Hamlet the audience learns within the first twenty lines of dialogue where the scene takes place (“Have you had quiet guard?”), what time of day it is (“‘Tis now strook twelf”), what the weather is like (“‘Tis bitter cold”), and what mood the characters are in (“and I am sick at heart”).
One important difference between plays written in Shakespeare’s time and those written today is that Elizabethan plays were published after their performances, sometimes even after their authors’ deaths, and were in many ways a record of what happened on stage during these performances rather than directions for what should happen. Actors were allowed to suggest changes to scenes and dialogue and had much more freedom with their parts than actors today. Shakespeare’s plays are no exception. In Hamlet, for instance, much of the plot revolves around the fact that Hamlet writes his own scene to be added to a play in order to ensnare his father’s murderer.
Shakespeare’s plays were published in various forms and with a wide variety of accuracy during his time. The discrepancies between versions of his plays from one publication to the next make it difficult for editors to put together authoritative editions of his works. Plays could be published in large anthologies called Folios (the First Folio of Shakespeare’s plays contained 36 plays) or smaller Quartos. Folios were so named because of the way their paper was folded in half to make sections of two pages each, which were sewn together to make a large volume. Quartos were smaller, cheaper books containing only one play. Their paper was folded twice, making four pages. In general, the folios are of better quality than the quartos. Therefore, plays that are printed in folios are much easier for editors to compile.
Although Shakespeare’s language and classical references seem archaic to some modern readers, they were commonplace to his audiences. His viewers came from all classes, and his plays appealed to all kinds of sensibilities, from “highbrow” accounts of kings and queens of old to the “lowbrow” blunderings of clowns and servants. Even his most tragic plays include clown characters to provide comic relief and comment on the events of the play. Audiences would have been familiar with his numerous references to classical mythology and literature, since these stories were staples of the Elizabethan knowledge base. While Shakespeare’s plays appealed to all levels of society and included familiar storylines and themes, they also expanded his audiences’ vocabularies. Many phrases and words that we use today, like “amazement,” “in my mind’s eye,” and “the milk of human kindness” were coined by Shakespeare. His plays contain a greater variety and number of words than almost any other work in the English language, showing that he was quick to innovate, had a huge vocabulary, and was interested in using new phrases and words.
Othello is an adaptation of the Italian writer Cinthio’s tale “Un Capitano Moro” (“A Moorish Captain”) from his Gli Hecatommithi (1565), a collection of one hundred tales in the style of Giovanni Boccaccio’s Decameron. No English translation of Cinthio was available in Shakespeare’s lifetime, and verbal echoes in Othello are closer to the Italian original than to Gabriel Chappuy’s 1584 French translation. Cinthio’s tale may have been based on an actual incident occurring in Venice about 1508. It also resembles an incident described in the earlier tale of “The Three Apples”, one of the stories narrated in the One Thousand and One Nights (Arabian Nights). Desdemona is the only named character in Cinthio’s tale, with his few other characters identified only as the “Moor”, the “Squadron Leader”, the “Ensign”, and the “Ensign’s Wife” (corresponding to the play’s Othello, Cassio, Iago and Emilia). Cinthio drew a moral (which he placed in the mouth of Desdemona) that European women are unwise to marry the temperamental males of other nations.
Cinthio’s “Moor” is the model for Shakespeare’s Othello, but some researchers believe the poet also took inspiration from the several Moorish delegations from Morocco to Elizabethan England circa 1600. While Shakespeare closely followed Cinthio’s tale in composing Othello, he departed from it in some details. Brabantio, Roderigo, and several minor characters are not found in Cinthio, for example, and Shakespeare’s Emilia takes part in the handkerchief mischief while her counterpart in Cinthio does not. Unlike in Othello, in Cinthio, the “Ensign” (the play’s Iago) lusts after Desdemona and is spurred to revenge when she rejects him. Shakespeare’s opening scenes are unique to his tragedy as is the tender scene between Emilia and Desdemona as the lady prepares for bed. Shakespeare’s most striking departure from Cinthio is the manner of his heroine’s death. In Shakespeare, Othello suffocates Desdemona, but in Cinthio, the “Moor” commissions the “Ensign” to bludgeon his wife to death with a sand-filled stocking. Cinthio describes each gruesome blow, and, when the lady is dead, the “Ensign” and the “Moor” place her lifeless body upon her bed, smash her skull, and cause the cracked ceiling above the bed to collapse upon her, giving the impression its falling rafters caused her death. In Cinthio, the two murderers escape detection. The “Moor” then misses Desdemona greatly, and comes to loathe the sight of the “Ensign”. He demotes him, and refuses to have him in his company. The “Ensign” then seeks revenge by disclosing to the “Squadron Leader” the “Moor’s” involvement in Desdemona’s death. The two depart Cyprus for Venice, and denounce the “Moor” to the Venetian Seignory; he is arrested, taken to Venice, and tortured. He refuses to admit his guilt and is condemned to exile. Desdemona’s relatives eventually find and kill him. The “Ensign”, however, continues to escape detection in Desdemona’s death, but engages in other crimes while in Venice. He is arrested and dies after being tortured. Cinthio’s “Ensign’s Wife” (the play’s Emilia), survives her husband’s death to tell her story.
Cinthio’s tale has been described as a “partly racist warning” about the dangers of miscegenation. While supplying the source of the plot, the book offered nothing of the sense of place of Venice or Cyprus. For knowledge of this Shakespeare would have used Gasparo Contarini’s The Commonwealth and Government of Venice, in Lewes Lewkenor’s 1599 translation.
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