There is no reason to pretend that Maths is easy. Maths is a language with a unique vocabulary, written sometimes with a dizzying array of often incomprehensible symbols. No matter how simple it may be, solving Maths can also be a challenge for quite a number of persons. Not all students are gifted mathematicians. And even those who are may have forgotten some of the topics earlier covered. To be candid Maths requires a lot of effort and hard work and consumes a lot of energy and cognitive power. Maths is not easy to be friendly with until most of the anxiety and fears are removed as being proposed by us through our books.

Unfortunately, our system of Maths education is a kind of an unwished nightmare to many students. Everyone knows something is wrong. The National Assembly announces, “We need higher standards.” The public schools say, “We need more teachers and teaching aids.” Educators say one thing, and teachers say another. They are all wrong. The only people who understand what is going on are the ones most often blamed and least often heard: the students. They say, “Maths classes do not inspire us,” – and they are right!

Our books attempt to answer these questions as well as inspire the students involved. But they are not the usual run of the mill textbooks on Maths listed by topics and divided into unending chapters of punishment. Each book is divided into four broad sections for easy understanding. The theoretical and practical contents are short enough to educate students, teachers or parents. To do this the books avoid turning each chapter and page into fearful mountains which students must climb.They are reader-friendly and are unlike many Maths textbooks which make students anxious and fearful. They are like writing novels or literature in place of Maths problems. These compilations from various authors and our internal resources constitute an attempt to remove a common nightmare and portray Maths in a more realistic and friendlier manner. They also set out to show how WAEC has been helping students to improve their performances in Maths over the years.

Learning Maths not only requires strong fundamentals but also a lot of practice, and making mistakes is part of that process. Making errors in Math is a good thing, and can help the students to learn and explore Maths in a better way. However, repeating same mistakes again and again over an extended period will not benefit the students and will be harmful to their confidence. One of the major reasons for preparing these books is to help in minimizing such unnecessary errors

For Maths, no single text can make all the difference needed by students. They need far more help than what their recommended books or classroom teachers can give them. Nevertheless, we feel that readable handbooks like ours, arranged appropriately to motivate them towards having a friendlier relationship with Maths would be a partial solution to removing their anxiety, fears and sometimes ignorance about the subject.

Are you a Maths student or Maths tutor? If you are, then these books are for you They are part of our 40-year old Maths toolbox and should therefore be great and unique gift items for your students, your teachers and parents too. Though written principally as references for students and for anyone with interest in secondary school Maths they are also intended to assist Maths tutors and parents in their quest to make Maths softer and friendlier to students. As a matter of fact, students, teachers, businesspeople, accountants, bank tellers, check-out clerks — anyone who uses numbers and wishes to increase his or her speed and arithmetical agility, can benefit from the clear, easy-to-follow techniques detailed in both books

Go on and open the books. Only then can you understand how and why some students who used to be terrorized by Maths became teachers of the subject they once loved to hate.

Good luck




“For more than two thousand years a familiarity with Mathematics has been regarded as an indispensable part of the intellectual equipment of every cultured person. Today, unfortunately, the traditional place of mathematics in education is in grave danger. The teaching and learning of mathematics has degenerated into the realm of rote memorization, the outcome of which leads to satisfactory formal ability but does not lead to real understanding or to greater intellectual independence…” (Amazon Book Review)

Maths is one of the most important subjects in Nigerian schools because of its role for progress to higher studies and for daily living in the society at large. However it is also the most misunderstood subject leading to inappropriate teaching methods causing anxiety in students which in turn leads to hatred of the subject.

It is with great pleasure that we introduce our two books specifically written to assist teachers and reduce the anxiety and hatred of Maths by students. We assure every reader, whether student, tutor or even parents that both books are loaded with many relevant approaches for learning/teaching the subject. They are:


The first book is a Q/A book in the main. It was written to promote strategic competence through Maths problem-solving exercises, focusing on students’ areas of weakness and generally reducing errors. This is to be achieved through guidelines and relevant notes provided by examination bodies such as WAEC and NECO. However, unlike other Q/A books in the market it establishes 3 additional methods for learning/teaching Maths. These are specified through additional notes and constitute why this book is better than all the other Q/A books in the market. The additional methods included are:

-The Motivational Approach- Teaching students why Maths could be interesting and rewarding.
-The Procedural Approach- Teaching students how to develop a tactical approach towards Maths literacy and understanding
-The Clinics and Seminars Approach- Arranging effective after-school Maths clinics, remedial measures schools can employ to boost the morale of their students for Maths learning.

The notes also specify the roles great tutors, parents and organizations like Edupedia can play to improve the performances of their wards. This book provides an overall supportive role but it is not a typical “Maths For Dummies” book.

It is well segmented and intuitive. It also has more text information explaining what needs to be done on a step-by-step basis. Therefore, it has the potential to be the definitive Maths book for teachers and students across all national exams. The aim of this book is to explain, carefully, how to learn/teach Maths but not in a deeply
technical or calculative manner. It aims to distill the essential ideas and explain things in simple language.

So let us summarize the main ideas in the books as follows:

a. Maths is not easy but can be surmounted by anyone
b. If you are looking for a Maths miracle without making some effort you may not find such in these books
c. It is important knowing that Maths can be more easily learned through different approaches outlined in both books


It is evident that politicians for the past four to five decades in Nigeria have not delivered good governance to Nigerians nor managed our resources to improve the well being and welfare of its citizens. It is common knowledge that these politicians in their estimation have perfected the cycle of deceiving the electorate by literally buying the votes of the people and foisting incompetent people on the citizens on the platform of their political parties. Strategies of manipulation also include exploitation of ethnic sentiments and religious dispositions of the electorate to impose these visionless, corrupt and ethically immoral people of them. This current government set us back many years with the level of nepotism that we thought had died in our country and many lives have been lost in what could be considered the archaic and backward policies of cattle herdsmen that has resulted in many deaths.
Change of leadership could not be more compelling than in 2019. This is why the electorate has to be enlightened to no longer be deceived by N1000 or a piece of Ankara to mortgage their quality of life and those of their children to hirelings and charlatans who wear political garbs with no understanding or desire to serve their people. Good governance is about is about service to the people. Valuing with integrity the trust that is reposed on leaders to judiciously and efficiently manage the nation’s resources to the direct benefit of the people of Nigeria. It is not about ethnicity or religion or tribe. It is about being accountable, transparent, committed to meeting the goals that have been set to deliver to the electorate in a timely manner. Let us do all we can, using the social media and other media to disarm money politics in our country that undermines our ability to choose wisely those who will deliver on their campaign promises and stop the rot of incompetent leadership in Nigeria.
The time for change is 2019. Please, do not sit on the fence. Get involved. Join a movement to change Nigeria. I have joined the Red Card Movement. Let us take charge of our destiny and drive change that will deliver good governance and the benefits of a progressive nation for our country. Let us educate the electorate. The time to start is now.





Query 1:

Examine the critical elements of the Nigerian Constitution and identify aspects of it needing an amendment for a better administration of the country.

Our Response:

The 1999 Constitution lies against itself as it is not a people’s constitution, but rather foisted by the military. Hence it’s anti-developmental applications.
A critical element requiring urgent amendment is in the area of the security apparatus of the country. Our allusion points at the Police, where centralization has limited effectiveness while accounting for crass incompetence.
The police are underpaid, under-trained and overstretched. Consequently, the soldiers who are the last line of defense of any nation are now the first, having been drafted to 32 out of the 36 states doing internal security operations.
The 68 items on the exclusive list must be revisited and be worked on. These in part also have been the cog in the wheels of effective development.
Legislation on resource control must tilt in favor of states, while formula of monthly allocation must be reversed, such that the federal government gets less in the suggestions of LG…40… States …40 and the federal government 20.
Extra-budgetary allocation and honorarium will be made possible to the federal purse for security reason.

Query 2:

Examine the roles of Political, Traditional and Religious Leaders to determine if they have fulfilled their critical roles in nation-building and development of the society.

Our Response:

Of a truth, the majority of these ‘power groups’ should and would have contributed more, but the ethnic clannish and religiosity skew have obliterated expected efficiencies.
Let us x-ray these traditional and religious leaders a bit more closely.
The former, whose task is to both preserve and teach core values, while staying neutral has lost it, partly because our kind of democracy has supplanted their mode of evolution as they have to get approval as well as Staff of Office from the governors, invariably, they are tied to the apron strings of their paymasters.
If we go down even to our recent history, we know that when Sultan of Sokoto Sir Abubakar 111, the father of the current Sultan Saad, was going on his first pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, he left his household in the care of Mr. Dike, an Igbo from the South who went to Sokoto in 1915. Mr. Dike was so trusted that he had access to the Sultan’s bedroom.
Dike’s offsprings are still in Sokoto fully integrated. In doing this, Sultan Sir Abubakar 111 was practicing what his worthy ancestor, Shehu Usman Dan Fodio advised in his book, “Bayan Wujub al_Hijra” where Dan Fodio wrote, “one of the swiftest ways of destroying a state is to give preference to one particular tribe over another, or to show favor to one group of people than another, and draw near those who should be kept away and keep away those who should be drawn near.”
So how come we have missed the way so dastardly?
The religious leaders themselves teach, that their religion is the only channel to God, thereby creating a direct or subtle psychological mindset of religious superiority to others. It further engenders hatred and divisions, while causing jeopardy to harmony.
Political leaders also seem superior to the laws, as they repeatedly violate the constitution and subvert the process of justice in connivance with their lawyers and corrupt judges.

Posted By C&L Alumni Core Group.





Nigeria’s form of government looks familiar to the American style as the president has a four-year term and has a possibility of a second term. The national assembly is bicameral, with a senate and a house of representatives distributed among the states by population. There is also the apex judiciary court known as the Supreme Court.

Political parties are expected to be a core group of institutions in any functioning democratic system. However, the activities of Nigerian political parties over the years have been to subvert and not promote democracy and good governance. Here are the major actors in the choice of leaders for the country

THE CABAL…Nigerian political parties have been hijacked by a few cabals whose mindsets are those of “do-or-die” politicians. They generally tend to believe that political power through elections has to be “captured”. These highly placed Nigerians include retired society’s elites, top military officers, policemen, paramilitary agencies and government contractors who operate as political godfathers. Because of their enormous wealth and influence, they personalize political power which ordinarily should belong to the people and ought to be institutionalized. With the assistance of state institutions like the police, army, and the electoral body, they turn their different parties or states into personal estates. They determine nearly everything that happens in the parties or states. They are the ‘king’s makers’. These godfathers arrogate to themselves powers to decide for the people thereby threatening the democratic process in the country and equally denying the people the right to take part in politics. Generally –speaking these kingmakers themselves are power drunk, self-seeking, ideologically barren. The pervasive ‘godfather challenge’ also exists in almost all parts of the country, and is not necessarily limited to any one state or geopolitical zone in particular

Among these cabals are members of the States and National Houses of Assembly in Nigeria who themselves are products of corrupt and undemocratic rules and processes

INEC included among the list of amendments to the legal framework it submitted to the National Assembly as far back as late 2012 or thereabouts, the need for the introduction of Independent Candidacy in our electoral laws. The idea behind that is for the purpose allowing (an) independent candidate(s) – i.e. any eligible person(s) who happen(s) to meet a very strict set of specified qualification criteria for such – to be able to avoid the influence of godfathers in deciding who gets to be on the ballot as a party candidate. Perhaps, not totally unexpectedly, that amendment did not sail through in the end.

UNEMPLOYED YOUTH…Unemployment is high resulting in youth restiveness and its concomitant general insecurity and high crime rate in the country. These include militant activities in the Niger Delta area, kidnapping cases in the south-east, the activities of ‘area boys’ and robbery cases in the southwest and Boko Haram menace in the north. All these are clear reactions of unemployed Nigerian youths to bad governance in the country.

THE POOR MASSES….Nigerian citizens are grossly unequal in wealth and the poor who are invariably the most, are dependent on the wealthy. Most of our largely uneducated pool of electorate, on their part, do not still understand or appreciate the fact that they can, indeed, vote for the candidate of a different party other than the main party they support, depending on the quality of the candidate presented by each party. In other words, the concept they seem to generally accept and entirely go by, more often than not, is one which tends to imply that once they massively support a particular political party or candidate in a state or an area, it then automatically follows that they just have to vote and return any and all candidates presented by that party across all the conceivable election types conducted by Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) – i.e. Presidential, Governorship, Senatorial, House of Representatives and State Houses of Assembly elections – and possibly, even local government council elections conducted by the various State Independent Electoral Commissions (SIECs), regardless of whether other more qualified or better-suited candidates may be running for the same place on another party platform. The resulting dangerous phenomenon during elections, which is largely fuelled by such mindset, has appropriately been dubbed and has since come to be known and regarded as the “bandwagon effect” in local electoral parlance. Their membership of parties are not based on genuine manifestoes but linked availability of cash gifts, incessant religious crisis, the persistent ethnic and sectional conflicts, separatist movements etc. They are generally not averse to maiming, killing, burning, and unimaginable destruction of lives and property either.

OTHERS…To some extent, the Nigerian Judiciary and most of the State Independent Electoral Commissions (SIECs), cannot be absolved of blame about what these parties are doing. The roles of the judiciary and that of the SIECs as the last hopes of the average person have been undermined by different godfathers either through inducement, cajoling, and intimidation. In essence, “the judiciary and most of the SIECs, to a large extent are subject to the whims and caprices of these do or die, politicians.


A poor political culture has emerged from the interactions of the various actors above leading to

Machine politics which “involves the parceling out of parts of the State including territories to people, usually under the leadership of one or two notables

Those who have somehow appropriated and cornered for themselves the rights to pick out or select from among the long list of aspiring politicians on our behalf appear uncomfortable with pushing forward and implementing the kinds of reforms that will make sure only people who meet the relevant criteria of qualification, knowledge, experience, vision, skills, wisdom and courage, among others, are put forward for such positions. This is, perhaps, because such people may not be amenable to being teleguided or pushed around in a way that their benefactors have come to expect over the years. We, therefore, have a “garbage – in, garbage – out” syndrome on our hands

Political parties look more like social clubs and not groups of people held together by well-thought-out manifestoes. Usually, party primaries are conducted in grossly undemocratic fashion. In many cases, the results were said to have gone to the highest bidder and usually well-known in advance before an election

Political Powerlessness – which is an individual’s feeling that he cannot influence the actions of a party because of the crude use of money to buy votes. Or the heightened use of thugs to influence results. Massive rigging of buying of votes during internal party election is a norm and not an exception

Political Meaninglessness – which implies the person who finds himself in this situation is unable to make choices without directions from the cabal

Political Lawlessness– here the individuals’ perception that norms or rules of political relations are not observed, or that there is no adherence to the rule of law according to party constitutions. There is the perception of a high level of deviating behavior generally among political actors

Political Isolation of people who decide not to play ball

Political Estrangement – this is a feeling of withdrawal that an individual has arisen from the deplorable conditions of public life even as he plays his roles in the political process. Increasing discontent with current government policy and performance undoubtedly contributes to political cynicism.

Reckless mobilization of ethnic, language or religious differences within party members

Violence and assassination of political aspirants and kidnap of their families

Very high financial wherewithal for the campaign, take care of the cabal and the social norms of the clubs otherwise called political parties.

Even where party members feel aggrieved or where an electorate has a change of mind the legally permissible recall of elected officials is a rather tedious process, which probably explains why none has succeeded thus far in our recent history.



The average Nigerian has been so profoundly frustrated, disappointed and devastated by the crude manifestations of the mechanics of Nigerian electoral politics, so much so that they have become either apathetic and indifferent, or exceedingly cynical or The civic duty of going out to vote in elections had become very dangerous, exposing voters to risks of being assaulted or injured or killed by armed thugs doing the bidding of some politician, or by some deranged militants and terrorists. If they succeeded in casting their votes unscathed, they watch helplessly as the votes were stolen, or the election results purchased from cooked election and security officials, such that for all practical purposes, their votes don’t count. In the circumstances, many citizens have withdrawn from the electoral process and/or have become extremely skeptical about the value and utility of elections.

As a developing third world country, Nigeria is bedeviled by institutional weaknesses and systemic challenges, which all impact negatively upon the preparations and conduct of elections. For example, INEC was inherited by Prof. Jega as a weak institution, with a very negative public image to boot. Some of the characteristics of a week institution include inefficient and personality-driven business process; lack of good record-keeping and institutional memory; and susceptibility to pettiness conflicts by primordial vested interests and cleavages. It is very challenging to routinize work and achieve efficiency and effectiveness in such as organization because it requires a change of attitudes through serious efforts at change management says Prof Jega.

There is also the complicated matter of the impact/influence of other weak institutions, on an institution being reformed!

General systemic challenges and peculiarities also impose constraints on electoral reforms. For example, Nigeria has a very serious systemic security challenge. There is an upsurge in criminality, committed with impunity and unrestrained by the remarkable weakness of the police as an institution; political thuggery, kidnapping, armed robbery, assassinations, militancy and insurgency, all joined to make the political and electoral terrain very unstable and insecure. There is not much an EMB like INEC can do in the face of such systemic challenges; except forge closer collaboration and working relationship with all security agencies, in the hope that working together, there could be a more effective strategy in minimizing the challenges.

The cost of running INEC is also rather too astronomical for our economy. Revenue that could be used to provide the infrastructure needed by business is used for funding elections. The total budget for the 2011 elections released by INEC was put at N89billion ($659million). In the federal budget for 2011, another N46.4 billion was allocated to the same elections. Indeed, the total budgetary allocation for elections was about N133 billion naira. It is important to state that INECs budget for 2011 dwarfed the budget of most states of the federation. Osun state had a budget of N88.1 billion, Kwara state N68.6 billion and Edo had a budget of N106 billion. When compared to other developing countries such as Bangladesh, India, and Ghana, the cost on per head basis in Nigeria was more than double. For 2015 elections INEC’s N74 billion on voters register amounts to N1, 138 per head for 65 million registered voters. Ghana conducted its 2008 elections at the cost of $40 million which amounted to $3 per capita.

Commencement reviews of the electoral legal framework do not usually start early and do not usually comply with the international Protocols to which Nigeria is a signatory. This need to be completed at least six months before a general election.

INEC recognized, quite early, the need to increasingly use technology to improve the conduct of elections in Nigeria. One key challenge is associated with the virtual absence of Original Equipment manufacturers (OEMs). Virtually everything has to be sourced from vendors, and imported from abroad, who impose extortionate conditions, arbitrarily review upwards licensing fees on account of ‘proprietor’ rights. As most technology relies on electricity, the inadequacy of power supply requires added expenses on batteries, spare parts, and redundancies. INEC tried to right technology, albeit through vendors, but with an effort to curtail their total control, by signing on to contracts with detailed specifications and use of Open Source Software. But doing this also has its own challenges!

There are also other associated challenges. For example, meeting the production deadlines in the production o permanent voter card (PVC) f PVCs was seriously affected by power failures, which damaged equipment, which the vendor could not quickly replace. The use of smart card readers (SCRs) was constrained by the fact that some polling units are located in areas where there was no Internet coverage! Or in schools, which were used as Super Registration Area Centres (RACs) with no electricity to charge batteries and SCRs!


Several factors accounted for the voter participation in the elections. These included

Voter Education

Mobilization of Human and Material Resources

Security for Electoral materials

The credibility of the candidates,

The desire to change the party in power due to poor performance,

The use of the Smart card readers and fairness of the zoning arrangement.

A large number of voters were also encouraged by INEC‟s assurances of credible polls.

Party image was reported to have played the least impact on voters‟ decision to vote.

Voting behavior in the election was generally in conformity with INEC‟s electoral guidelines. Voters were orderly during accreditation, voting, sorting, counting, and declaration of results. Voters also largely accepted the outcome of the election without resorting to post-election violence.

In spite of all these, the election was characterized by low voter turnout (see table below showing Number of Registered voters versus Total Votes cast) This is no surprise with the anticipation of rigging, insecurity, dissatisfaction with the performance of elected representatives, general lack of interest in the election, and people‟s valuation of the rewards of other activities on the election day, as reasons for poor outing for the elections.


  Summary of 2015 Presidential Election Results in Benue State    
S/n Name of No. of No.   of Votes Received by Parties
  No.  of   No.    of Total
  LGA   Regd.   Accred,       Valid   Rejected Votes
      Voters   Voters         Votes   Votes Cast
            APC           PDP
1 Ado   59,888   10,946 2,328 7,382   273 9,983   559 10,542
2 Agatu   47,895   15,284 3,627 9,555   120 13,294   658 13,952
3 Apa   46,934   13,418 4,526 6,450   203 11,179   778 11,957
4 Buruku   92,862   42,564 23,397 15,407   478 39,084   639 39,723
5 Gboko   191,036   83,180 54,065 22,971   489 77,521   1,570 79,091

The Commission’s performance in provision of electoral security was largely below the mark and this accounted for some pockets of electoral violence in some areas.


All is not bad news, however. If in the not so distant past, apathy, skepticism, and hopelessness pervaded the Nigerian landscape, there are now some positive vibes emitting from the relative success of the 2015 general elections.There seems to be a growing perception that things like the PVCs and the SCRs, combined with our active and take part in the electoral process can indeed, make our votes count!

Moral/Religious Values




Government much more than ever before needs to evolve credible strategies to improve the resource base of the State to address the socio-economic requirements of the people as postulated by Johari (2012). This is the essence of recruiting leadership at elections and this is the basis for which leadership is able to garner legitimacy and acceptability.

Self-appointed ‘kingmakers’, also known locally as “godfathers”, who perennially go about oozing their familiar overbearing attitude on the rest of the population either change their ways, or we somehow collectively find a way to dislodge them from their current vise-like grip on our political leadership selection process, with a view to liberalising and democratizing it, to make it a more open one eventually.

We wish to agree with the recommendation of some writers for the exclusion of certain categories of people (i.e. the cabals identified earlier in this paper) from participating in the democratic process and governance in Nigeria. The ignoble role played by these cabals in Nigerian politics is a threat to the sovereign existence of Nigeria

The problem of our leadership selection process is well within our powers and wherewithal to work and improve upon, but we somehow always fail to do those vital little things that are required to make a marked difference

The release of the party structures from the vise-like grip of godfathers and other money bags, to make way for a more open and democratic system of selecting candidates,

Voters should be free to choose the preferred candidates of their choice, regardless of party affiliation, and there are, perhaps, several instances one can possibly cite where that has, indeed, been the case.

Amendment of the electoral law in Nigeria to further curb the widespread election rigging in the country.

Political parties should be encouraged to improve on their public images through the entrenchment of internal democracy and good governance when elected into power. Many registered voters did not turn out in the elections due to the fact that, they were not satisfied with government performance by the party in power. As major institutions in the democratic process, political parties can enhance political participation when they deliver on their mandates through good governance

Political parties should develop internal rules for candidate selection that are transparent and democratic, and exclude those who use intimidation, violence or bribery to gain nomination or office. Nigerian women and youth should be more encouraged to take part more actively and to seek public office



Improve the transparency and credibility of the conduct of elections, and cut persistent fraudulent activities, which are perpetrated with impunity in Nigerian elections.

Review and amend the Electoral Act 2006 and the 1999 Constitution to substantially improve the electoral legal framework

Polling stations should be at institutional buildings such as schools, community centers, etc, which are centrally located.

Where these are not available, INEC should set up temporary polling stations at permanent locations; and each polling station should consist of not more than 500 voters.

Voters’ Registration should be a continuous exercise as provided for in the Electoral Act, 2010 (as amended), such that every eligible voter would be given the opportunity to register at designated INEC offices ;

There should be an interconnectedness between the National Identity Card and voters’ registration data to ensure the credibility and integrity of the Voters Register; and

There should also be continuous voters’ registration, education, and sensitization.


There is, the absolute need for a deliberate, purposeful and focused continuation of the reform of the Nigerian electoral process leading to the next general elections in 2019, to tackle subsisting challenges, clean up, sanitize or cleanse the political terrain, stabilize the polity and create a solid foundation for consolidating and deepening democracy in Nigeria, as well catalyze economic growth and socioeconomic development.

INEC also should be given more powers to prevent it being manipulated by the government. Once a new electoral law is enacted, the National Assembly and Nigerian civil society organizations and professional associations such as the Nigerian Bar Association should exercise oversight functions over its implementation and the actions of INEC

There is also the increased need for more foreign observers to train and sensitize INEC officials and to watch elections.

A permanent Electoral Reform Committee, with the mandate to make wide-ranging recommendations for electoral reform in Nigeria is a necessity The modest effort at electoral reform after the submission of the report of the Justice Muhammadu Uwais Electoral Reform Committee (ERC), as represented by the introduction of new legal and administrative reform measures, and the inauguration of a new Chairman and Commissioners, paved the way for remarkable improvements in the 2011 and especially the 2015 general elections. But many of the important recommendations were left out.The major ones notably Nos 1-4 were either partially accepted and addressed or simply ignored. For example, while INEC was placed on First Charge and thus gained some relative financial autonomy, the mode of appointment of Chairman, National Commissioners and Resident Electoral Commissioners remained the same, and this continued to nurture a deep-seated perception of the Commission as only doing the bidding of the incumbent who nominated them; under the notion that “he who pays the piper dictates the tune”! In any case, it can be said that there is still unfinished business with regards to the recommendations of the ERC, which other efforts at electoral reforms would need to seriously address

Strengthen and protect the autonomy of INEC from political interference. This is to be done first, by giving the National Judicial Council (NJC) a major role in the appointment of Chairman and National Commissioners of INEC, instead of the current role of the president in nominating these officers; and second, by placing INEC on First Line Charge and granting it relative financial autonomy.

Unbundle’ INEC. That is, create other agencies to handle responsibilities being undertaken by INEC, which have overburdened it, such as constituency delimitation; registration and regulation of political parties; and prosecution of electoral offenders; and thus allow INEC to focus on its core mandate of organizing and managing elections.

Introduce some form of proportional representation, to promote inclusiveness, especially in National and State legislatures, and improve the representation of women, persons with disabilities and the youths

The Independent National Electoral Commission needs to improve in the area of electoral security. The electorates, election officials, and sensitive election materials must have adequate security during elections. This will make sure the confidence of the electorate in terms of their safety is guaranteed.

Civil society organizations to continue and expand their broad civic education efforts to include monitoring and reporting on the adjudication process and to promote non-violence acts throughout the election process.

There are many challenges of elections irregularities, corruption, and impunity that political leaders and government must address. Unless alleged perpetrators of electoral fraud ,violence and associated violations of the Electoral Act and the Nigerian criminal Law are urged to quickly brought to justice ,irrespective of their official positions or political associations ,the specter of corruption and impunity that has marred Nigeria’s electoral process in the past and now ,will continue to threaten and undermine Nigerians confidence in the country’s political institutions.

Where results declared by INEC are set aside by the decisions of election tribunals, INEC should conduct internal investigations and take the necessary steps to sanction those members of its staff and/or poll workers found culpable of electoral malpractices, and start criminal prosecution where and applicable.

The Independent National Electoral Commission can also urge increased political participation by improving on its use of the election technology of Smart Card Readers in future elections to decrease the delays that were witnessed during elections due to technical hitches. In addition, the Commission should in conjunction with the National Orientation Agency, the Media, Non-governmental Organizations and Community Associations improve on voter education with particular focus on vote casting to cut the number of rejected ballots in next elections. A situation where a total of 19,867 rejected votes, constituting (28.3%) of total votes cast for the presidential election in Benue state is not healthy for the electoral system in Nigeria.

Finally, we advocate for the introduction of civic and political education in Nigeria’s School Curriculum from primary to the tertiary level. This will improve the political awareness of Nigerian masses to demand their rights as well as demand accountability from their representatives when necessary.


Educate the electorate on the importance and advantages of good governance and their right to demand nothing less from political leaders.

Liaise, coöperate and exchange ideas with other Groups or Organizations’ with similar mandates working towards the actualization of a better Nigeria.


1.Here is my suggestion to someone on Nairaland recently…. …”Easy for u to stay here and abuse everybody…u better get out and join the struggle to defeat them….after your voters card get together a group in your area to form the nucleus of the effort to push them out…meet to set goals and plan on what to do in your area …get out now to emancipate Nigerians…the task will not be easy but mere abuse on social media won’t achieve much either”….

2.Those you form the association with should also form their own groups and so on and so forth till u have something like the MMM.

3.Decide the way to go but the overall aim should be to quietly or loudly destabilize the cabal by joining a party or standing alone. But either way, it can be a deadly assignment.

4 The alternative, of course, is the third force but we can not suggest anything till we know them…


Leadership Selection In Contemporary Nigerian Politics: Challenges and Prospects

Electoral reforms in Nigeria: challenges and prospects by Professor Attahiru M Jega, OFR

Political participation and voting behavior in Nigeria: A study of the 2015 general elections in Benue Dr. Member Euginia George-Genyi

Democratization and electoral process in Nigeria: A historical analysis by Ezekiel Oladele Adeoti


Posted By C&L Alumni Core Group.





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Elder Solomon Adesina Ogunlana J. P. was born in Ilisa-Ita Oliwo compound at Iperu Remo, on 2 1/11/26. He was the only child of late Madam Safuratu Efunkoya Ogunlana and the first of the two children ofPa Yinusa Ojuroye Ogunlana, a distinguished trader in Aso-Oke (Native Cloth).

He had his primary school education between 1935 and 1943 at Wesley Primary Schoool, Iperu Remo under the notable late Ebumawe of Ago Iwoye, Oba D. M. Osiyemi as the Headmaster and Rev. W. F Mellor as the District Superintendent. He was a chorister, a flute player of Boy’s Brigade and first eleven footballer. By academic performance he qualified to enter the Wesley College, Ibadan. But contrary to attending a Teachers’ College he chose Baptist Boy’s High School, Abeokuta which also gave him admission in 1945. He completed his secondary school education in 1950 and was successful in the Senior Cambridge School Certificate Examination.

He started his working career at the British Ordinance Depot, Yaba, He then moved to P&T (Telegraphic section) where he worked briefly before joining the UAC Ltd in May 1951. At UAC he worked till 1957. In Nov. 1957 he joined ESSO West Africa Inc. which was later to be known as IJNIPETROL and now called OANDO PLC. He worked there till 1960.

In June 1960, he was employed by Shell company of West Africa Ltd later known as National Oil and Chemical Marketing Plc.(NAOCM). There he had series of training courses including accountancy with ACCA. He had a distinguished career of twenty-five and half years in National Oil and Chemical Marketing Plc also later called CONOIL before retiring as the Management Payroll Accountant in November 1985. He was the Treasurer of the Co-operative Society Branch of NAOCM.

Married to late Grace Adunni Awoderu of Ogere-Remo, he was blessed with two children before she died in a ghastly motor accident on 9/7/56. (May her soul rest in perfect peace).His second marriage to Janet Olatunde Odetoyinbo has also been very successful and blessed with five children. His seven children are Oluremi (Public Administrator/Retired Civil Servant), Olabisi (Lawyer/Retired Civil Servant), Modupe (School Vice-Principal), Olusola (Medical Doctor), Abimbola (Chartered Accountant), Adebayo (Chemical Engineer) Oluwatoyin (Electrical Engineer). He is also survived by many grandchildren and great grandchildren.

In 1989 he joined active politics and in 1990 was elected as a councilor into the legislative arm of the Shomolu Local Government and worked as a legislator while simultaneously discharging the functions of the Chairman, Works and Housing Committee which was dissolved in Nov 1993. He was the Chairman of Shomolu LGA of AFENIFERE which metamorphosed into the DEMOCRATIC PEOPLES’ ALLIANCE. He was also a member of the executive arm of the party in Lagos state where he worked closely with Mr Jimmy Agbaje as the gubernatorial candidate. Coincidentally, Jimmy and wife had been long-time friends with some of his children from their university days at OAU, Ile-Ife.

His social life was very pleasant having been the President of Iperu Club 48. He was also the Financial Secretary of Remo High Society. He became the Chairman of Pedro Community Development Association and Treasurer of Alabi/M.Bakare/Adeffiye/Akinsanya St. Landlords’ Association. He was also the Treasurer of the Federal Road Safety Special Marshall Unit 73 Shomolu.

He was a devoted and very prayerful Christian. In particular he was a completely committed member of William Memorial Methodist Church Ago-Ijaye, Ebute-Metta, Lagos and an Executive member of the Men’s Christian Union and Assistant Auditor of the Elders’ Union.

All through his life and as shown by this biography his most notable traits were honesty, dependability and an unshakeable faith in God and education. As accountants say he was ALWAYS TRUE & FAIR. Even in his church societies members gladly added that he MAINTAINED AND SUSTAINED through his genuine friendships and care of his family and external relations.

Therefore we glorify God Almighty for his disciplined life and pray that the soul of our father Hon. Solomon Adesina Ogunlana rest in perfect peace. Amen


Omo Iregun Shabii


Omo maka

Omo maka alo

Omo Aberintan

Ko gbodo jerin

Omo ija,

Ijalo to nja lehin ogba

Koje komode ile lo musu wa

Omo isu wa nle

Ko sobe ta ma fije

Omo iwera oke elewu ara

Omo idarika,ni kabo








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By the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, “education” is a process of training and instruction especially of children and young people in schools and colleges etc. designed to give knowledge and develop skills.

Education, as we know it today, takes place throughout life from basic education which teaches Nursery and Primary school students reading, writing and arithmetic skills to Secondary school education which prepares students for Higher Education. We have Universities or Polytechnic education to provide technical and specialized skills for obtaining more rewarding careers. Other types of education include Continuing Education and professional development courses which provide information or expand people’s working knowledge and help them to take advantage of future career opportunities.

Education is not about schooling alone. In fact, Mark Twain had this to say “I never let schooling interfere with my education” This is a truism our group of schools has attempted to explain in the past through a write-up “Am I a student or just an attendant at school?” We have also emphasized this through many after-school programs to show that education is made up of both classroom and non-classroom experiences. Non-classroom experiences are also covered by your relationship with your friends and your socialization through your parents, neighbors, churches, mosques and the society at large. This has made someone (Henry Drummond) to state that “Life is not a holiday but an education”.

The purpose of education as the Bible (Psalm 90) says, however, is to “teach us to number our days that we may apply our hearts to wisdom” To connect wisdom to happiness let us quote the Bible again “Only a wise man knows what things really means. Wisdom makes him smile and makes his frowns disappear” (Ecclesiastes 8:1). In other words, education should lead to wisdom and wisdom should lead to happiness in life.

Earlier we stated that education is designed to give skills and knowledge. But does knowing lead to wisdom? For this, let us consider a truism stated by a man of God called C.H. Spurgeon. He says “Wisdom is the right use of knowledge. To know is not to be wise. Many men know a great deal and are all the greater fools for it. There is no fool so great as a knowing fool. But to know how to use knowledge is to have wisdom.”This leads us to another truism to be studied later about how we use the knowledge and skills we learn in schools and ultimately to the one great fact that God is the author and finisher of all our being and happiness.

Today, students, parents, educators, employers, and government are changing the educational system from what it used to be, they are taking advantage of information technology, developing business – education partnerships or programs and using value-based performance objectives and measures in order to have a better educated and happier workforce. But are they succeeding?


There is a lot of truth in the saying that education is not about schooling alone. And believe it or not, schooling which we mistakenly call education in our country is nightmarish to the average Nigeria child. As a matter of fact, the schooling types we now have can be classified as:

  1. a) Buckingham Palace (Top grade private schools)
  2. b) I “Pass my Neighbor” (Average grade private and public schools)
  3. c) Boko Haram (Low grade private and public schools)

All the same, education remains the best option for empowering not only children but adults alike for contributing to the social, economic and political fabric of the society. Although parents are aware of the importance of education and are desirous to give their children the best, many of them are unfortunately uninformed about the best way to achieve their hearts desires. The inability of staff in teaching and students in applying appropriate teaching techniques have also led to repeated failures in both internal and external examinations causing frustration and disappointment to students and their parents.

We educators today must, therefore, come to terms with the realities of our schools and the info-tech age. The methods used in the past to educate us are in the main not relevant to our children. There are too many distractions calling for their attention within the limited time available for studies. Unfortunately, many students are often mistakenly labeled as lazy or lacking in concentration! But by the time you take out school hours, class assignments, home chores, family socials and commitments, PREMIER / CHAMPIONS LEAGUES, FACEBOOK/TWITTERS, IPOD/IPAD, BIG BROTHER AFRICA, NAIJA SINGS, NIGERIAN/AMERICAN IDOLS, X-FACTOR, BACHELORETTE, hand-held phones and web roaming one is left to ponder when these children can read seriously or ever take their studies seriously! Compare these to their parents who probability had only BONANZA, VILLAGE HEADMASTER AND IICC V RANGERS FOOTBALL MATCHES as “distracters”.

Unfortunately, many parents are under the illusion that sending children to boarding houses will limit students’ propensities for some of these time- eaters. What they seem to forget is that those dedicated teachers and boarding housemasters of old have faded away and only a few of those left are comparable to when they were in school. These days we have those who want to be bribed by parents for “taking care of their children” or “for organizing extra classes” for them.


So what needs to be done? This is where EDUPEDIA, its Lagos Books Club Library and its series of books under EDUGUIDE come in. For almost 25 yrs those of us in Edupedia have actively promoted regular schooling and emphasized remedial education for thousands of secondary school students through our MASON COLLEGE and PASS TUTORIAL COLLEGE Festac, Lagos. Along the line, we also got involved in “training the trainers” seminars and conferences. We have not interacted with students in private schools only but have also been appointed to serve on rescue teams of public secondary schools. In the same vein, we served on the Education Foundation Board of 17 public primary schools in ONIGBONGBO LCDA OF LAGOS and have conducted Jamb clinics for thousands in the Amuwo Odofin LGA. We have also been guest speakers at the valedictory ceremonies of schools such as LIGHTHOUSE SECONDARY SCHOOL IKORODU. We have been praised for our qualitative contribution to students’ education and have made our impact felt wherever we were invited.

As far back as 2006 we also reviewed the state of things in public schools in Nigeria generally and sent a detailed write up on what needed to be done to the then Honorable Minister of Education Mrs. Ezekwesili. She replied almost immediately thanking and promising to get us more involved in future. But she had to return shortly after to the World Bank. We also sent the same write-up to the two houses of the national assembly and all education parastatals attached to the FMOE. Same to MOEs for each state through their liaison offices in Abuja.

But if we had read books such as these in our secondary school days we would probably have graduated with top honors all the way to the University. Then, life was less complicated and distractions were few compared to what students face today. By the time we were in university we had been preloaded with some of the skills you are about to read in these books. But if the same programs are to be used to promote life skills to students today they would see them as through a glass darkly.

After University and while taking professional examinations from Nigeria and England we were lucky to come across a few teachers who opened our eyes about studying and taking examinations. But it was when we opened our tutorial and regular schools that the need and contents for these books started gathering steam from day-to-day problems we had to take care of over the 25 years.

In addition to borrowing, buying these books or inviting us to conduct related clinics and seminars, please feel free to invite us as guests or motivational speakers to your students, staff, and parents on these topics or any other. We might even be able to suggest other topics not covered above. We shall be willing to cover your special events including valedictories, parents’ open days, inter-house sports days, students’ clubs and societies’ days, prefects’ boot camps or installation ceremonies.

Our conclusion is that many schools need to reorder their timetables to conform to the National Education Policy’s specifications on Educational Support Services. These sections should be looked at closely and activated as we have done. Each school should consider specific programs to cover Academic, Co-curricula and Remedial aspects of education for their studies.

Thank you






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1. The potential to transform lives – ask any teacher who has helped a student in any number of ways, from academic to welfare and emotional learning, and they will tell you that life is not only good, but amazing.

2. It gives you the chance to be continuously creative – of course there are increasing levels of accountability in teaching, but teachers are allowed to be creative in every lesson. Even in observations, in fact most of all in observations, lessons are encouraged to be creative and interesting to engage the students. Teachers have so many opportunities to try new ideas, and indulge in iterative process to ensure the optimum learning environment is created.

3. It offers you a chance to continuously get better – teachers are not only encouraged to seek continuous professional development, but can ask for observation on a regular basis, to provide opportunities to grow and learn from masters or more experienced practitioners. In so few professions is there such support, and considering that as a minimum, contracts are for a year, teachers have so much time to demonstrate improvement. A growth mindset is part of the foundation of teaching.

4. It is a grounding, humbling profession – the amount of work teachers do compared to remuneration is shockingly disproportionate, in 2 senses: firstly, in terms of how many paid vs non paid hours of work they receive, and secondly, in relation to other similarly creative and important (and not so important) vocations in our society. But that is not why teachers teach. So few teachers go into the vocation for the salary – it’s a calling before anything else.

5. There is always satisfaction somewhere – teaching is a calling, and no one enters it without his or her inner voice telling him or her that. Of course there are always some imposters, but the massive majority have their hearts in the right place. How cool is that for the students?

Having said that, teaching can be and is incredibly demanding, and often we can lose sight of that calling, bogged down in aspects of the profession that don’t seem to be connected to it. But on closer inspection, most of the extra demands are actually central to the job itself: explaining to parents where you are coming from; being observed; collaborating with others; marking.

Take this last aspect, crucial to understanding whether students are learning what you believe you are teaching. Yes, it is very time consuming, but perhaps one of the most important and fundamental weapons in a teacher’s arsenal; any good school will understand this and the other cited demands, and create an environment where they become part of directed time.

It is when these aspects are not acknowledged in directed time that the conditions for burnout are rife.

6. It’s a chance to truly to lead the world in the 21st century – introducing students to new technologies and ways of presenting, curating, and collaborating with others with what they know is truly exciting and truly invigorating. Modern teachers are actually pioneering pedagogy, and can and will be able to hold their heads up high in the future when we look back and see how learning in this day and age took a radical but enormously beneficial turn for the better.

Engaging students in greater collaboration, and instilling initiative in curation and the promotion of information leads to truly independent learning, and setting up such learning environments is an opportunity that all teachers now have before them. There are few more gratifying feelings that being needed.

7. The children.

By Paul Moss

Source: Why Teaching Is The Best Job In The World


The registered active student population of the National Open University of Nigeria, NOUN, has hit 254,000, its vice- chancellor, Abdalla Adamu, disclosed.

Mr. Adamu told the Economic Confidential magazine in Abuja that the number is distributed across the 77 study centres scattered all over the country touching all the states, local government areas and the six geopolitical zones.

“I can confidently confirm to you that the total registered active student population is now 254,000 scattered across the 77 study centres in the country”, Mr. Adamu said.

The NOUN boss also said that having the 77 study centres means that some states have more than one or two study centres depending on demand, adding that Abuja has about 8 centres.

He further stated that “some organisations come to us and ask for study centres and we call them specialised centres, notably Police, Immigration and the Nigerian Prison Service, while some states have community study centres.

He, however, noted that at the inception of the Open University, there were misgivings and mistrust about the institution, as many people did not look at it as credible and worthy. He said the pressure of students getting admission to conventional universities was increasing by the day as almost one million students want to gain admission into universities yearly through Joint Admissions and Matriculation Board, JAMB.

He emphasised that the influx has become so enormous that the state study centres can no more cope with the population, which gave rise to requests for community study centres by some states and these requests were mostly from the southern parts of the country.

Meanwhile, the university authority has sacked the two companies manning the Information Technology (IT) infrastructure and replaced them with an in-house team of IT experts, thereby saving the institution about 80 per cent revenue that had earlier been lost to NOUN.

“Well as for how much I have saved for doing away with consultants, I would not tell you that because that is our secret. When I took over, I saw that the entire Information Technology infrastructure were outsourced to two companies. One was called Cyberspace and the other called Emerging Platforms.”

“They were the ones running the entire system. As an ICT person myself because I spent about 15 years teaching System Analysis at Masters Degree level in Bayero University, Kano. Now how can I have a department of Computer Science, and the Dean of that department was the immediate Vice-President of Nigerian Computer Society, a professor of Robotics and other talents in ICT in these university, and yet still outsource all these to another agency, I said no it cannot happen!

“So the first thing I did was to look at the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between us and the two organisations. Of course they paid us the usual courtesy call so that they can remain relevant. We sat down and looked at the MOU and found out that in one of them the MOU stipulates 70 per cent profit and the other 85 percent of the revenue as profit because they provide all the skills, technology including examinations portal. I said this is not acceptable”.

“So we assembled a team and asked ourselves whether we can do this. So they said they can. Then I said go and design it and we decided to shut out the two companies and all kinds of legal battles started, stating that they have signed the contract for five years and cannot be terminated”.

“I told them that within the MOU we can give each other one month notice to terminate such contracts and so I have the powers to do so. You can imagine when the students pay this money, one company gets 70 percent of such payments and the other gets 85 percent! I said that has stopped, and any money coming to us would now be ours henceforth”.

He stressed that the revenue flow was able to provide needs of the study centres and train them at conferences to increase their efficiency, adding that the money is also used in paying for those writing course materials for the university.

We are contented because we do not request government to provide such monies, the professor said.

He said because of funds “being generated through the payment of tuition by students, the institution is now able to push out quality materials for students and also planning to shoot this into tablets, so that we have what we call “I-NOUN”.

“So this I-NOUN will be a complete package of courses. So we cut out these outsources and created our own services and it is working. The key to sustainability in any Open Distance Learning (ODL) is independence.

Source: Student population in Nigerian Open University hits 254,000 – Premium Times Nigeria


The National Agency for the Control of AIDS, NACA, has dismissed an HIV cure claim by Professor Maduike Ezeibe, a Professor of Veterinary Medicine and Clinical Virology at the Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Abia State.

In a statement entitled “Re: Nigerian scientist conquers HIV/AIDS”, Director General of the Agency, Dr. Sani Aliyu, said there was no basis for a claim to the cure of AIDS as described in the study presented by Ezeibe.

Media reports had quoted Ezeibe as saying that the drug, produced with “Aluminium Magnesium Silicate” was tested on 10 persons living with HIV. It was also reported that a clinical outcome of an ability to “reach all cells” and making HIV “a conquered organism”.

Aliyu said: “The claim for a HIV/AIDS cure is not new. It is also not new to find a scientist using ambiguous scientific methods and practices to buttress this claim, and to find obscure journals increasingly prepared to publish these claims.”

Examining the facts, The NACA DG who said the study quoted by Ezeibe did not follow standard ethical protocols for clinical trials, also noted that there was no evidence from the publication that the authors obtained ethical clearance from an appropriate body in Nigeria to conduct this study, and only ambiguous evidence that informed consent was sought from the evidently vulnerable patients.

“We are concerned that the publicity given to these claims will stop patients with HIV from taking life-saving antiretrovirals and give them false hope of a cure. It will be a great disservice to this vulnerable group of patients for the media to disseminate these claims in the absence of sound scientific evidence. “There are long established, tried and tested routes for the discovery, development and validation of modern medicines before they can be registered and used for treatment in humans and animals.

He urged all academics to follow legal and scientifically acceptable methods in conducting their research and to avoid making premature claims that are capable of derailing the huge progress made in the last two decades on the war against HIV/AIDS.

Aliyu also urged media houses in Nigeria to seek comments from the leadership of the relevant government parastatals and professional bodies when it receives new research findings related to our areas of responsibility.

“We call on all patients living with HIV that are currently taking their medications to continue to do so and to see their doctors if they have any concern. The NACA helpline (6222) is available on working days from 8am-8pm for members of the public seeking more information on HIV disease,” he affirmed.

Source: NACA dismisses HIV cure claim by Michael Okpara University Prof. – Vanguard News



5 Things Students Love to Hear Teachers Say

1. “You’ve shown great improvement”
2. “I’m proud of you”
3. “You were one of my best students”-
4. “You have the ability and the potential”
5. “You can do it!”

Nancy Barile

3 Things Students Desire to Hear From Teachers

“Every child needs at least one adult who is irrationally crazy about him or her.” – Urie Bronfenbrenner

1.”I believe in you.You are going to be successful someday”
2.“You have a purpose.I see it and feel it!”
3.”Question Me.Ask me how I am. Ask me what I need. Ask me my thoughts and feelings.”

Dr. Lori Desautels
Assistant Professor in the School of Education Marian University




Standard measure

1 mile = 1760 yards = 5280 feet
1 yard = 3 feet = 36 inches
1 rod = 5.5 yards = 16.5 feet
1 hand = 4 inches
1 span = 9 inches
1 light year = 5 878 500 000 000 miles

1 kilometres = 1000 metres
1 metre = 1000 millimetres
1 metre = 10 decimetres
1 decimetre = 10 centimetres
1 centimetre = 10 millimetres
1 light year = 9 465 000 000 000 000 metres

Surveyor’s measure

1 mile = 8 furlongs = 80 chains
1 furlong = 10 chains = 220 yards
1 chain = 4 rods = 22 yards = 100 links
1 link = 7.92 inches

Nautical measure

1 league = 3 nautical miles
1 nautical mile = 1.1508 statute miles
1 degree (@ equator) = 60 nautical miles
120 fathoms = 1 cable
1 fathom = 2 yards = 6 feet

Conversion factors

1 mile = 1.6093 kilometres : 1 kilometre = 0.62139 miles
1 yard = 0.9144 metres : 1 metre = 1.0936 yards
1 foot = 0.3048 metres : 1 metre = 3.2808 feet
1 inch = 25.4 millimetres : 1 millimetre = 0.03937 inches


1 square mile = 640 acres
1 acre = 10 square chains
1 square chain = 16 square rods
1 square rod = 30.25 square yards
1 square yard = 9 square feet
1 square foot = 144 square inches
1 circular inch = 0.7854 square inches

1 square kilometre=100 hectares
1 hectare = 100 ares
1 are = 100 square metres
1 square metre = 100 square decimetres
1 square decimetre = 100 square centimetres
1 square centimetre = 100 square millimetres

Conversion factors

1 square mile = 2.5899 square kilometres : 1 square kilometre = 0.3861 square miles
1 acre = 0.4047 hectares : 1 hectare = 2.471 acres
1 square yard = 0.836 square metres : 1 square metre = 1.196 square yards
1 square foot = 0.0929 square metres : 1 square metre = 10.764 square feet
1 square inch = 645.2 square millimetres : 1 square millimetre = 0.00155 square inches


Standard measure

1 cubic yard = 27 cubic feet
1 cubic foot = 1728 cubic inches
1 cord (wood) = 4 x 4 x 8 foot
1 perch (masonry) = 16.5 x 1.5 x 1 foot

Shipping measure

1 register ton = 100 cubic feet
40 cubic feet = 32.143 US bushels
40 cubic feet = 31.16 imperial bushels

Dry measure

1 US bushel = 1 winchester struck bushel
1 US bushel = 1.2445 cubic feet
1 US bushel = 4 pecks = 32 quarts
1 peck = 8 quarts = 16 pints
1 heaped bushel = 1.25 struck bushels
1 UK bushel = 8 imperial gallons

Liquid measure

1 US gallon = 4 quarts = 8 pints
1 quart = 2 pints = 8 gills
1 UK gallon = 1.2009 US gallons

Old liquid measure

1 tun = 2 pipes = 3 puncheons
1 pipe = 1 butt = 2 hogsheads = 4 barrels
1 puncheon = 2 tierces = 84 gallons
1 tierce = 42 gallons
1 barrel = 31.5 gallons

Apothecaries fluid measure

1 US fluid ounce = 8 drachms
1 fluid drachm = 60 mimims
1 US fluid ounce = 1.805 cubic inches
1 UK fluid ounce = 1.732 cubic inches

Cubic measure
1 cubic metre = 1000 cubic decimetres
1 cubic metre = 1000000 cubic millimetres
1 cubic decimetre = 1000 cubic centimetres
1 cubic centimetre = 1000 cubic millimetres

Dry and liquid measure

1 hectolitre = 100 litres
1 litre = 10 decilitres
1 decilitre = 10 centiletres
1 centilitres = 10 millilitres
1 litre = 1 cubic decimetre
1000 litres = 1 cubic metre

Conversion factors

1 cubic yard = 0.7646 cubic metres : 1 cubic metre = 1.308 cubic yards
1 cubic foot = 0.02832 cubic metres : 1 cubic metre = 35.315 cubic feet
1 cubic inch = 16387.064 cubic millimetres : 1 cubic millimetre = 0.00006102 cubic inches
1 cubic foot = 28.137 litres : 1 litre = 0.0353 cubic feet
1 US gallon = 3.785 litres : 1 litre = 0.2642 US gallons
1 UK gallon = 4.5454 litres : 1 litre = 0.22 UK gallons

Velocity / Acceleration

1 mile/hour = 1.4666 feet/sec
1 foot/minute = 0.2 inches/second
1 knot = 1 nautical mile/hour
1 cycle/second = 1 hertz
1 metre/sec = 3.6 kilometres/hour
1 revolution/minute = 0.104 radians/second

(Acceleration) gravity = 9.81 metres/second²

Conversion factors

1 mile/hour = 1.609 kilometres/hour : 1 kilometres/hour = 0.62139 miles/hour
1 foot/second = 0.3048 metres/second : 1 metre/second = 3.2808 feet/second
1 knot = 1.852 kilometres/hour : 1 kilometre/hour = 0.5399 knots

Weight / Mass

Avoirdupois measure

1 gross ton = 1 long ton = 2240 pounds
1 net ton = 1 short ton = 2000 pounds
1 pound = 16 ounces = 7000 grains
1 ounce = 16 drachms = 437.5 grains

1 long ton = 20 hundredweight
1 hundredweight = 4 quarters = 112 pounds
1 quarter = 2 stone = 28 pounds
1 quintal = 100 pounds

Troy weight (measure of gold and silver)

1 pound = 12 ounces = 5760 grains
1 ounce = 20 pennyweights = 480 grains
1 pennyweight = 24 grains
1 carat (diamond) = 3.086 grains

Apothecaries weight

1 pound = 12 ounces = 5760 grains
1 ounce = 8 drachms = 480 grains
1 drachm = 3 scruples = 60 grains
1 scruple = 20 grains

Standard measure
1 tonne = 1 metric ton
1 tonne = 1000 kilograms
1 kilograms = 1000 grams

1 centigram = 10 milligrams
1 decigram = 10 centigrams
10 decigrams = 1 gram
10 grams = 1 dekagram
10 dekagrams = 1 hectogram
10 hectograms = 1 kilogram

Conversion factors

1 long ton = 1.016 tonnes : 1 tonne = 0.9842 tons (long)
1 short ton = 0.9071 tonnes : 1 tonne = 1.1024 tons (short)
1 pound = 0.4536 kilograms : 1 kilogram = 2.2046 pounds (avoirdupois)
1 grain = 0.0648 grams : 1 gram = 15.432 grains

1 grain (avoidupois) = 1 grain (troy) = 1 grain (apothecaries)

Pressure / Force

1 atmosphere = 14696 psi (pound/inch²)
1 psi = 144 pounds/square foot
1 psi = 2.042 inches Hg (mecury) @ 62° F
1 psi = 27.7 inches H2O (water) @ 62° F
megapascal = 1000 kilopascals
1 kilopascal = 1000 pascals
1 bar = 1 megapascal
1 Newton = 1 kilogram x 9.81

Conversion factors
1 atmosphere = 101.325 kilopacsals : 1 kilopascal = 0.00986 atmospheres
1 psi = 6.894 kilopascals : 1 kilopascal = 0.1382 psi

1 kilogram/square millimetre = 1422.32 psi : 1 psi = 0.7031 grams/square millimetre
1 kilogram-metre = 7.233 foot-pounds : 1 foot-pound = 0.1382 kilogram-metres

1 UK tonf = 9.964 kilonewtons : 1 kilonewton = 0.1004 UK ton (force)
1 US tonf = 8.896 kilonewtons : 1 kilonewton = 0.1124 US ton (force)
1 pound(force) = 4.4482 Newtons : 1 Newton = 0.2248 pounds(force)


1 solar year = average interval between 2 successive returns of the sun to the first point of Aries.
1 sireal year = average period of revolution of the Earth with respect to the fixed stars.
1 anomalistic year = average interval between successive perihelions
1 solar year (1 astronomical year) = 365.242 mean solar days
1 sireal year = 365.256 mean solar days
1 anomalistic year = 365.259 mean solar days
1 calendar year = 365.25 mean solar days
1 solar day = interval between 2 successive returns of the sun to the meridian
1 mean solar day = average length of solar day over 1 year
1 second = time equal to the duration of 9,192,631,770 periods of radiation corresponding to the transition of the ground state of the Caesium-133 atom.

1 lustrum = 5 years

Old English standard

1 moment = 1.5 minutes

Work / Energy / Power

1 horsepower/hour = 2545 British thermal units
1 British thermal unit = 778 foot-pounds
1 kilowatt/hours = 3600 kilojoules
1 kilowatt = 1 kilojoule/sec

Conversion factors

1 horsepower/hour = 0.746 kilowatt/hours : 1 kilowatt/hour = 1.34 horsepower/hours
1 horsepower = 746 watts : 1 watt = 0.00134 horsepower
1 British thermal unit = 0.252 calories (kilogram calorie)


Boiling point of water = 212° Fahrenheit
Freezing point of water = 32° Fahrenheit
Boiling point of water = 100° Celsius
Freezing point of water = 0° Celsius
1 Celsius degree = 1 Kelvin degree
0 Kelvin = absolute zero

Conversion factors

Fahrenheit to Celsius = (5/9)x(tF-32)
Fahrenheit to Kelvin = (5/9)x(tF + 459.67)
Celsius to Fahrenheit = (9/5 x tC)+32
Celsius to Kelvin = tC + 273.15

India On Rent !


It may come as a surprise that I hated math while in school. If I teach it today, then something must have happened. Here is my tale of conquering math anxiety…

From day one, kids in school get drummed into them that teachers know it all. Students don’t dare challenge the teacher and if they are falling behind it’s implied that the fault lies within the student. (My story is on no way intended to bash the teaching profession. There are many, many excellent teachers out there.) But, teachers today are dealing with new challenges such as larger class sizes, condensed curriculum, etc., so less time is spent on assessing the individual’s progress and understanding. This fact, combined with the tendency for kids to avoid questioning teachers on unclear concepts, leads to low self-confidence in the classroom and poor performance.

That was me: afraid to question. And, consequently, my grades suffered.

My teachers (in an expensive private school) taught to the top and ignored the bottom half of the class. Guess where I was? I always sat at the back of class, out of trouble and out of sight. Many, many times, I wanted to ask a question because I was confused. But, my heart would thunder and my stomach would turn at the thought of being ridiculed. Ridicule is a very powerful blunt instrument. So, questions didn’t get asked and there were no answers. According to a series of studies from the American Educational Research Association, only 25% of students asked for help once more, after failing to get an answer to a question on the first attempt.

Math anxiety is very common and can be transferred to students from other classmates or even subconciously passed down from parents. Math anxiety manifests in the classroom because students run the risk of appearing vulnerable in front of their peers – something that we spend our entire adolescence trying to avoid. Class participation for a math class often requires students to rely on memorization, and one person’s ability to recall information differs greatly from person to person- especially when mixed with the pressure to respond quickly and confidently in front of an audience. Another challenge for students is having the confidence to potentially answer a question incorrectly – appear foolish – or inquire further about a concept that is still unclear.

So in my case, pretty much ALL the basic concepts of math were never fully learned, all a vague blur, and I had nowhere to go but down. Math is like a ladder with a bunch of rungs. If the lower rungs are missing, then it’s impossible to climb the ladder. The years rolled on and math became more and more difficult – more and more confusing – and when kids are confused they will do anything to relieve the discomfort. Truth be told – we all do that. As a result, kids will turn away, turn off, make excuses, engage in diversions, blame others, hate math, lie to themselves (and their parents) and sink! They give up hope for the future and resolve that they will never be a “math person.”

I was lucky. My best buddy’s dad was a man I admired greatly. Even at my lowest, he picked me up by the scruff of my neck and gave me a life lesson. All it takes is one person to change your outlook and restore confidence. Specifically, he taught me about belief systems. I believed I was stupid. As a self-fulfilling prophecy it worked beautifully. Everything was hard, nothing was easy, and what the teachers had told me over the years came to be true. I was dumb and the results proved it.

Now, if I teach math today, then something must have happened. Yes, it did. Mr. Brown taught me about my bent beliefs and he persuaded me that the best way to understand math was to try to explain it to other people. My immediate reaction was, “You must be insane! How can I do that?!” But, Mr. Brown insisted and even got me a job as a math teacher! Not just any job, but at a prestigious technical college named after John Napier, the guy who invented logarithms! Scared or not, Mr. Brown pushed me forward and I studied, and I studied, and I studied. Not to pass an exam, but to pass my future students unscathed. After spending the afternoons on intense individual study, I would go to school at night and teach math. Monday through Friday – every night. And, as I was teaching – I found I was really teaching myself.

I finished at my University with 1st Class Honors, and making 100’s became routine – something I would have never thought possible. Once I abandoned my fear of asking questions and focused on learning concepts rather than relying on memorization, no exam question could rattle my cage and there was no more exam anxiety. I became comfortable confronting the things I was unclear on, and admitting openly when I needed help. One-on-one learning is a life-time opportunity – once students find comfort and are at ease in being open and honest about their shortcomings, they open the door to REAL learning.

After one year of this intense study and clarification in my mind, I discovered that, without my perceived pressure of a classroom full of peers waiting to judge my performance, all the basic concepts were actually very straightforward and made perfect sense.

Don’t we ALL like stuff when we – are – good – at – it? I came to really enjoy math – because I – was – good – at – it.

Genius? Me!? No way!! I just did what had to be done. Period.

No more doubts, no more fear, and no more exam anxiety.


  • The faster you admit that you “don’t get it” the sooner you WILL.
  • It’s ok to ask for help from others. ASK QUESTIONS!
  • We can ALL be “Math People.”
  • Study time is a must. NO excuses.
  • Believe you can – and you can! Telling yourself you NEVER will is setting yourself up for failure.

R. Bruce Neill has been a tutor on WyzAnt since February 2011, and provides online lessons. SEND AN EMAIL to R. Bruce today to inquire about availability. Since joining the site, he has taught over 900 hours and received 450 star ratings. His reviews are overwhelmingly positive and one students goes as far as to call him a “math genius!” He tutors in Math, Pre-Algebra, Algebra I and II, Geometry, Trigonometry, Pre-Calculus, Calculus, Microsoft products, Mac, Physics, SAT, ACT, Language Arts, Career Development and resumes – even Portuguese!


Educational Resources

 You can find a lot of fine educational materials available on the internet, however It sometimes takes a while to locate it. These links will lead you to important topics covered in many subjects and training resources which we might be very beneficial to you.

 Open educational resources (OER) are freely accessible, openly licensed documents and media that are useful for teaching, learning, and assessing as well as for research purposes. It is the leading trend in distance education/open and distance learning domain as a consequence of the openness movement.

There is no universal usage of open file formats in OER.The development and promotion of open educational resources is often motivated by a desire to provide an alternate or enhanced educational paradigm.

  1. Algebra Explorations, Pre-K through Grade 7
  2. Basic Algebra
  3. Basic Algebra Concepts
  4. Algebra 1
  5. Algebra I Teacher’s Edition
  6. Algebra 2
  7. Basic Geometry
  8. Basic Geometry, Teacher’s Edition
  9. Basic Geometry Concepts
  10. Geometry
  11. Geometry, Teacher’s Edition
  12. CK-12 Trigonometry Concepts
  13. Trigonometry
  14. Trigonometry, Teacher’s Edition
  15. Basic Probability and Statistics – A Short Course
  16. Basic Probability and Statistics – A Full Course
  17. CK-12 Basic Probability and Statistics Concepts – A Full Course
  18. CK-12 Advanced Probability and Statistics Concepts
  19. Probability and Statistics (Advanced Placement)
  20. Advanced Probability and Statistics Teacher’s Edition
  21. Calculus
  22. Calculus, Teacher’s Edition
  23. Basic Physics
  24. CK-12 People’s Physics Concepts
  25. Physics – From Stargazers to Starships
  26. 21st Century Physics
  27. Chemistry
  28. Chemistry, Teacher’s Edition
  29. Chemistry – Labs & Demos
  30. Biology
  31. Biology Workbook
  32. Biology, Teacher’s Edition
  33. Life Science for Middle School
  34. Earth Science Concepts
  35. Earth Science for Middle Schools
  36. Earth Science for High Schools
  37. Engineering – An Introduction for High School
  38. Adventure Stories
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  42. Best Books Ever Bookshelf
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  63. Libros en Español
  64. Westerns


Encyclopedia – Wikipedia Selection

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U.S.National Library of Medicine

  1. Medical Encyclopedia (S.National Library of Medicine)


Hesperian Health Guides: (Hesperian)

  1. Where There Is No Doctor. A village health care handbook.
  2. Where There Is No Dentist
  3. Where Women Have No Doctor
  4. Disabled Village Children
  5. Women with Disabilities – A Health Handbook
  6. A Book for Midwives: Care for pregnancy and birth
  7. Helping Children Who Are Deaf
  8. Helping Children Who Are Blind
  9. Cholera Prevention Fact Sheet
  10. Sanitation and Cleanliness for a Healthy Environment
  11. Water for Life – Community water security
  12. A Community Guide to Environmental Health
  13. Helping Health Workers Learn


OLPC Educational Packages

  1. Storybooks
  2. Web Design
  3. Wikibooks
  4. Wikislice General
  5. Wikislice Animals



102.Wikislice Chemistry

103.Wikislice Physics

104.Nature Photographs

105.World Culture

106.Music Samples

107.How to Build Musical Instruments

108.y-Bee-See – An interactive ABC picturebook

109.A compact multilingual translation dictionary

110.Primary Mathematics in English

111.Primary Science in English

112.Secondary Science in English

113.School Management in English

114.HIV/AIDS Electronic Library – resource for teachers

Mathematics / Typing / Music lessons

115.MathExpression Math Video Lessons, Tips and Practice, from Wei  Chong

116.Typing Practice

117.Music Theory Lessons, from




He defined effective method as the art of teaching science such that students will be able to get the content of the teaching, and the teaching will in turn reflect on students’ behavior.He defined science as a way of explaining the universe in which we live in. He also stated that science is a body of knowledge and a process of acquiring knowledge.

The fundamental knowledge in scientific principles by “Marvin Druger” were given as;
(1)Science might be taught in an integrative manner.
(2)Changes in the science teacher preparation. That is the teacher should adopt different teaching formats, this will serve as a challenge to the students.
(3)Focus on students’ motivation.
(4)An active student involvement in the learning. In this case the teacher is expected to carry the students along as he teaches.

He then highlighted the various methodologies of teaching science effectively coupled with relevant check lists. He explained that the importance of the checklist is to guide the teacher on his presentations.


a.The Use Of Chalkboard:

-This is to illustrate, outline or underscore ideas in written or graphic forms.In using the chalkboard facts that cannot be picked by students during the teacher’s explanation might be seen more clearly by students

-Relevant checklist applicable to the Chalkboard were given as follows…The teacher must;

-Say what he/she has to say before writing them on the board.
-Use keywords or concepts.
-Be aware of the organization of ideas on the board.
-Erase the board before writing a new concept, idea or diagram.
-Write legibly and large enough to be easily read.


-He said this can be used to teach concepts or skills directly or to prepare students for laboratory work, he further explained that this will also provide the students opportunity to see a phenomenon or event that they otherwise would not have observed.
-The following checklists were also given on demonstration.He said that the teacher must;

-Be sure that the students can see and hear clearly.
-Do the demonstration on his own before trying it in front of students.
-Take all necessary precautionary/safety measures,for example making sure all windows are opened.
-Plan his demonstration so that it clearly shows the intended concepts or skills.

c.Field Trip

-The speaker described a field trip as a unique learning experience that cannot be accomplished in classrooms.

-Checklist include…The teacher must;

-Take the trip first before going with the students.
-Prepare the students for the trip by determining their objectives and general expectations.
-Make proper transportation arrangements.
-Confirm prior arrangements for admission.
-Obtain permission slips from parents or guardians
-Arrange for additional adult colleagues of opposite gender to come along.


-He said that the laboratory gives the students unique experiences on the actual use of equipment and materials as they resolve problems and develop knowledge,skills and values related to effective science teaching and learning.

-Checklist include…The teacher must;

-Select a laboratory that best illustrates his objectives.
-Make necessary changes in the physical arrangement of the laboratory.
-Be sure that materials needed for the practicals are available and functional.
-Give clear, succinct directions including safety precautions,how to handle equipments, where to obtain materials, assignment of groups and also expectations of conduct and reporting.

e.Laboratory Report

-He stated that this will formalize the students’ laboratory experience and make connections between prior and present knowledge.

-Checklist include…The teacher must;

-Involve students in report writing.
-Outline expectation in terms of length, format and thoroughness.
-Review the students report.

f.Film Shows/Classroom Computer & 1CT Devices (Devices)

-He said these will present information in an interesting and efficient manner.

-Checklist: The teacher must;

-Preview the Devices before showing/using them to/in the class
-Decide where the Devices can best fit in the instructional sequence
-Outline some introductory remarks.
-Ensure that the students concentrate on knowing how devices work and in knowning why they are relevant.
-At times pause Devices and have brief discussions where necessary, but not to be done too repeatedly.
-Conduct a discussion after the Devices come to an end.
-Entertain questions from students and make connections between content in Devices and the students’ previous knowledge and relevance for future topics.


-This is used to present a large body of information.

-Checklist: In doing the teachers is expected to;

-Be sure that the lecture is organized, use an outline and make it available before or during the lecture.
-Supplement lectures with slides and/or charts to illustrate concepts and ideas.
-Monitor students’ attention and relate previous knowledge with the present one to widen students understanding.
-Talk clearly and in a manner that clarifies key points and facilitate note taking.


-This stimulates thinking more effectively by a 2-way communcation between the teacher and students

-Checklist: The teacher must;

-Use variety of questions to test if the students have actually gained from the teaching.
-Outline expectation in terms of length, format and thoroughness.
-Provide time for the students to think about answers or questions
-Use questions that require thinking at different levels for instance recall, comprehension, application, analysis and evaluation.

Good luck.