NEW 2015 JAMB NOVEL…GET DETAILED REVISION QUESTIONS AND NOTES ON “THE LAST DAYS AT FORCADOS HIGH SCHOOL”

 NEW 2015 JAMB NOVEL...GET DETAILED REVISION QUESTIONS AND NOTES ON "THE LAST DAYS AT FORCADOS HIGH SCHOOL"

…mason college group,festac

1.SAMPLE NOTES ON CHARACTERIZATION

INTRODUCTION (EXCERPT)
Characters in a novel are agents employed by the author to develop his story. This he does through their actions, comments, thoughts and feelings……….

SHORT NOTES ON MAJOR CHARACTERS’ ROLES AND SIGNIFICANCE

THE COKER FAMILY & EFUA

The family was made up mainly of Mrs Coker,Efua’s mother and her Aunt Mrs Moni Alli. Efua’s father was referred to but not heard from in the novel.
The picture we had is that of a totally dysfunctional family especially after Efua’s father died and the mother re-married. This we got to know from the following reported incidents
-Mrs Coker was fixated on looking good and making profit from her business than giving any affection to her daughter…………………….

…Nene saw her as an intelligent student because she belonged to the science class. But we later got to know Efua as a poet , letter-writer and singer. In her former school she was the Editor of the school’s Magazine . She also showed signs of being an excellent public-debater and her school cert result confirmed that Nene’s initial disposition towards her was right. Can we therefore deduce that the background of a student does not determine academic ability or performance in school? No, we may not. In fact it is doubtful if the author intended to say so. Generally speaking Efua’s case may be regarded as an exception to the rule in an opposite direction. The rule being that a student’s background or state of home affairs can affect performance in school negatively………

2.DO YOU WANT DETAILED NOTES ON MATTERS BELOW FROM THE NEW JAMB NOVEL?

50 Revision Questions?
Plot/Chapter by Chapter Summaries?
Characterization?
Setting?
Point of View?
Themes?

3.PLEASE PAY N500 INTO OUR BANK ACCOUNT AT UBA AS FOLLOWS

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a.PLEASE CALL OR SEND A TEXT TO OUR PHONE +2348033010872 SHOWING NAME USED TO PAY INTO OUR ACCOUNT AND HOW WE SHOULD DELIVER YOUR NOTES (HARDWARE OR SOFTWARE)

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5.OUR PEDIGREE ?

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O.O.ODUMOSU (EX-PROPRIETOR,MASON COLLEGE/PASS TUTORIAL COLLEGE,FESTAC TOWN)

70% OF CANDIDATES FAIL NOV/DEC WASSCE…BUT THEY WILL NOT TELL YOU THAT THE FORMER MINISTER OF EDUCATION MR WIKE COULD HAVE MADE IT BETTER BY NOT PLAYING POLITICS ONLY IN OFFICE!

70% OF CANDIDATES FAIL NOV/DEC WASSCE…BUT THEY WILL NOT TELL YOU THAT THE FORMER MINISTER OF EDUCATION MR WIKE COULD HAVE MADE IT BETTER BY  NOT PLAYING POLITICS ONLY IN OFFICE!

Minister of Education, Mr. Ibrahim Shekarau

Of the 246,853 candidates who sat for the November/December 2014 West African Senior School Certificate Examination, only 72,522 candidates, representing 29.37 per cent, obtained credits in five subjects, including Mathematics and English Language.

This puts the percentage of failed candidates at 70.63 per cent.

However, the Head of the Nigeria National Office, the West African Examinations Council, Mr. Charles Eguridu, said there was an improvement when compared with last year’s 26.97 per cent (amounting to 80,135 candidates) who obtained five credits in five subjects, including Mathematics and English Language.

Announcing the results in Lagos on Thursday, Eguridu said there was a marked reduction in examination malpractices.

He attributed this to recent measures, including the introduction of biometric registration and customised mathematical sets with inbuilt calculators, taken to curb the scourge.

Notwithstanding efforts made to curb examination frauds, Eguridu said WAEC withheld results of 28,817 candidates.

He said the results which represented 11.67 of the number of candidates who wrote the examination, were withheld for “various cases of malpractices.”

The cases, according to him, are being investigated with the reports of findings expected to be presented to the National Examination Committee for consideration.

The examination agency had withheld 38,260 results, equivalent of 12.88 per cent of the total number of candidates who sat for the examination in 2013 for similar reasons.

Short of the total figures are 5,691 candidates (about 2.3 per cent) whose results, Eguridu said, were still being processed for errors he blamed on the candidates and cyber café operators.

He said, “Of the total number of candidates that sat for the examination, 75,313 candidates (30.5 per cent) obtained credits and above in six subjects; 110,346 candidates (44. 7 per cent) obtained credits and above in five.

“In addition, 145,036 candidates, representing 58.75 per cent, obtained credits and above in four subjects while 177.177 candidates, representing 71.77 per cent, obtained credits and above in three subjects. A total of 205,090 candidates (83.08) obtained credits and above in two subjects,” he presented.

The total number of candidates that sat for the examination this year is 61,364 short of the 308,217 candidates that wrote it last year – a decline of about 20 per cent.

There was also a shortfall of “blind candidates” enrollment. The figure fell from 82 recorded the previous year to 48. And while 17 of the category of candidates obtained five credits in 2013, four achieved similar feat this year.

Copyright PUNCH.

THE LAST DAYS AT FORCADOS HIGH SCHOOL…REVISION QUESTIONS AND NOTES FOR JAMB 2015 NEW NOVEL

THE LAST DAYS AT FORCADOS HIGH SCHOOL…REVISION QUESTIONS AND NOTES FOR JAMB 2015 NEW NOVEL

…short play by Mason College Festac students…

1.SAMPLE QUESTIONS

27. Which of the following cannot be considered as a reason for writing the novel. A) That parental care goes beyond paying school fees B) That school management are often too hasty in taking decisions about their students C) That mothers are usually more caring for their children than fathers D) That a talented student may not be the best academically…….

38.”I’m plain Jane” said Nene. This means that A) One of her names is Jane B) Efua is more beautiful C) She is a nice and simple girl D) She is honest and caring to her friends………

49.”The pigeons startled by the noise took to the air in a flurry of flapping wings”. The phrase underlined is a/an A) Oxymoron B) Allegory C) Metaphor D) Alliteration

2.SAMPLE NOTES

PLOT OF “THE LAST DAYS AT FORCADOS HIGH SCHOOL”
INTRODUCTION
The novel is about the Solade and Coker families whose children Jimi and Efua are the two major characters. It is also about other minor characters who happen to be their colleagues at Forcados High.
The novel hooks us immediately through family and individual conflicts exhibited at home and at school. These led to the arrests of Wole and Jimi Solade by the police, and mistaken suspensions of Jimi and Efua by school Management.
Before resolving these conflicts we are taken through a series of unfortunate events including a family tragedy, a paternal disappearance, revelations of incest and what looks like a gay relationship, drug use and prostitution, burglary, breakdown of school and personal friendships. The story climaxes at the point we got to know that the assumed lesbian relationship between Efua and one of the school’s NYSC female teachers is actually a farce.
Thereafter, all actions fall towards resolving most of the conflicts enumerated above. It is a matter of personal conjecture if the final resolution is a logical conclusion from the conflicts and story’s climax………………..

3.DO YOU WANT DETAILED NOTES ON MATTERS BELOW?
50 Revision Questions?
Chapter by Chapter Summaries?
Characterization?
Setting?
Point of View?
Themes?
4.PLEASE PAY N500 INTO OUR BANK ACCOUNT AT UBA AS FOLLOWS

EDUPEDIA ASSOCIATES…1005280011 AT UBA PLC,23RD FESTAC TOWN.

AFTER PAYMENT?,

a.PLEASE CALL OR SEND A TEXT TO OUR PHONE +2348033010872 SHOWING NAME USED TO PAY INTO OUR ACCOUNT AND HOW WE SHOULD DELIVER YOUR NOTES (HARDWARE OR SOFTWARE)

OR

b.COME PHYSICALLY FOR COLLECTION TO OUR OFFICE AT EDUPEDIA /LAGOS BOOKS CLUB LOCATED AT 5TH AVENUE M CLOSE HOUSE 27,FESTAC TOWN.
5.OUR PEDIGREE ?

SEE OUR FREE NOTES ON LITERATURE TEXTS IN THE PAST TWO YEARS AT http://lagosbooksclub.wordpress.com

O.O.ODUMOSU (EX-PROPRIETOR,MASON COLLEGE/PASS TUTORIAL COLLEGE,FESTAC TOWN

THE LAST DAYS AT FORCADOS HIGH SCHOOL…REVISION QUESTIONS AND NOTES FOR JAMB 2015 NEW NOVEL

DOWNLOAD JAMB 2015 CBT EXAMINATION SYLLABUS…CHEMISTRY

DOWNLOAD JAMB 2015 CBT EXAMINATION SYLLABUS…CHEMISTRYDOWNLOAD THIS

JAMB 2015 EXAMINATION SYLLABUS…CHEMISTRY

OR COPY BELOW:
CHEMISTRY
GENERAL OBJECTIVES

The aim of the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) syllabus in Chemistry is to prepare the candidates for the Board’s examination. It is designed to test their achievement of the course objectives, which are to:
(i)apply the basic principles governing scientific methods in new situations;
(ii)interpret scientific data;
(iii)deduce the relationships between chemistry and other sciences;
(iv)apply the knowledge of chemistry to industry and everyday life.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

1. Separation of mixtures and purification of chemical substances
(a)Pure and impure substances
(b)Boiling and melting points.
(c)Elements, compounds and mixtures
(d)Chemical and physical changes.
(e)Separation processes: evaporation, simple and fractional distillation, sublimation, filtration, crystallization, paper and column chromatography, simple and fractional crystallization.

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i. distinguish between pure and impure substances;
ii. use boiling and melting points as criteria for purity of chemical substances;
iii. distinguish between elements, compounds and mixture;
iv. differentiate between chemical and physical changes;
v. identify the properties of the components of a mixture;
vi. specify the principle involved in each separation method.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

2. Chemical combination
Stoichiometry, laws of definite and multiple proportions, law of conservation of matter, Gay Lussac’s law of combining volumes, vogadro’s law; chemical symbols, formulae, equations and their uses, relative atomic mass based on l2C=12, the mole concept and Avogadro’s number

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
(i) perform simple alculations involving formulae, equations/chemical composition and the mole concept;
(ii) deduce the chemical laws from: given expressions/statements;
(iii) interpret data based on these laws;
(iv) interpret graphical representations related to these laws.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

3. Kinetic theory of matter and Gas Laws
(a) An outline of the kinetic theory of matter, melting, vapourazation and reverse processes; melting and boiling explained in terms of molecular motion and Brownian movement.
(b) The laws of Boyle, Charles, Graham and Dalton (law of partial pressure): combined gas law, molar volume and atomicity of gases.

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
(i) apply the theory to distinguish between solids, liquids and gases;
(ii) deduce reasons for change of state;
(iii) draw inference based on molecular motion;
(iv) deduce chemical laws form given expressions/ statements;
(v) interpret graphical representations related to these laws;
(vi) perform simple calculations based on these laws and the relationship Between the vapour density of gases and the relative molecular mass.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

4. Atomic structure and bonding
(a)(i)The concept of atoms, molecules and ions, the works of Dalton, Milikan, Rutherford, Mosely,
Thompson and Bohr. Simple hydrogen spectrum, Ionization of gases illustrating the electron as
fundamental particle of matter.
(ii) Atomic structure, electron configuration, atomic number, mass number and isotopes; specific examples should be drawn from elements of atomic number 1 to 20. Shapes of s and p orbitals.
(b)The periodic table and periodicity of elements,presentation of the periodic table with a view to recognizing families of elements e.g. alkali metals,halogens, the noble gases and transition metals. The variation of the following properties should be noticed: ionization energy, ionic radii, electron affinity and electronegativity.
(c) Chemical bonding. Electrovalency and covalency, the electron configuration of elements and their tendency to attain the noble gas structure. Hydrogen bonding and metallic bonding as special types of electrovalency andcovalency respectively; coordinate bond as a type of covalent bond as illustrated by compelexes like [Fe(CN)6]3-, [Fe(CN)6]4-, [Cu(NH3)4]2+ and [Ag(NH3)2]+: Van der Waals’ forces should be mentioned as a special type of bonding forces.
(d)Shapes of simple molecules; Linear ((H2, 02, C12,HCI and C02), non-linear (H20) and Tetrahedral; (CR.)
(e)Nuclear Chemistry:
(i) Redioactivity (elementary treatment only)
(ii) Nuclear reactions. Simple equations, uses and applications of natural and artificial Radioactivity.

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
(i) distinguish between atom, molecules and ions;
(ii) assess the contributions of these scientists to the development of the atomic structure;
(iii) deduce the number of protons, neutrons and electrons form atomic and mass numbers of an atom;
(iv) apply the rules guiding the arrangement of electrons in an atom;
(v) relate isotopy to mass number;
(vi) perform simple calculations on relative atomic mass
(vii) determine the number of electrons in s and p atomic orbitals.
(viii) relate atomic number to the position of an element on the periodic table;
(ix) relate properties of groups of elements on the periodic table;
(x) identify reasons for variation in properties across the period.
(xi) Differentiate between the different types of bonding.
(xii) deduce bond types based on electron configurations;
(xiii) relate the nature of bonding to properties of Compounds;
(xiv) apply it in everyday chemistry;
(xv) differentiate between the various, shapes of Molecules
xvi) distinguish between ordinary chemical reaction and nuclear reaction;
(xvii) differentiate between natural and artificial radioactivity;
(xviii) compare the properties of the different types of nuclear radiations;
(xix) compute simple calculations on the half-life of a radioactive materials;
(xx) balance simple nuclear equation;
(xxi) identify the various applications of radioactivity.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

5.Air
The usual gaseous constituents – nitrogen, oxygen, water vapour, carbon (IV) oxide and the noble gases (argon and neon), proportion of oxygen in the air e.g. by burning phosphorus or by using alkaline pyrogallol, air as a mixture and some uses of the noble gas.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:
(i) deduce reason (s) for the existence of air as a mixture;
(ii) identify the principle involved in the separation of air components;
(iii) deduce reasons for the variation in the composition of air in the environment;
(iv) specify the uses of some of the constituents of air.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

6.Water
Composition by volume: Water as a solvent, atmospheric gases dissolved in water and their biological significance. Water as a product of the combustion of hydrogen. Hard and soft water. Temporary and permanent hardness and methods of softening hard water Purification of town water supplies. Water of crystallization, efflorescence, deliquescence and hygroscopy.
Examples of the substances exhibiting these properties and their uses

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
(i) identify the various uses of water
(ii) distinguish between the properties of hard and soft water;
(iii) determine the causes of hardness;
(iv) identity methods of removal of hardness;
(v) describe the processes involved in the purification of water for town supply;
(vi) distinguish between these phenomena;
(vii) identify the various compounds that exhibit these phenomena.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

7. Solubility
(a) Unsaturated, saturated And supersaturated solutions. Solubility curves and simple deductions from them, (solubility defined in terms of mole per dm3) and simple calculations.
(b) Solvents for fats, oil and paints and the use of such solvents for the removal of stains.
(c) Suspensions and colloids: Harmdttan haze and pants as examples of suspensions and fog, milk, aerosol spray and rubber solution as examples of colloids.

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
(i) distinguish between the different types of solutions;
(ii) interpret solubility curves;
(iii) calculate the amount of solute that can dissolve in a given amount of solven at a given temperature;
(iv) deduce that solubility is temperature-dependent;
(v) classify solvents based on their uses
(vi) differentiate.between a true solution suspension and colloids;
(vii) compare the properties of a true solution and a ‘false’ solution.
(viii) provide typical examples of suspensions and colloids.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

8.Environmental Pollution
(a) Sources and effects of pollutants.
(b) Air pollution:Examples of air pollutants such as H2S, CO, S02, oxides of nitrogen, fluorocarbons and dust
(c) Water pollution. Sewage and oil pollution should be known.
(d) Soil pollution: Oil spillage, Biodegradable and non-biodegradable pollutants

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
(i) identify the different types.of pollution and pollutants;
(ii) classify pollutants as biodegradable and non-biodegradable;
(iii) asses the effects of pollution on the environment;
(iv) recommend measures for control oi environment pollution.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

9.Acids, bases and salts
(a) General characteristics and properties of acids, bases and salts! Acids/base indicators, basicity of acids, normal, acidic, basic and double salts. An acid defined as a substance whose aqueous solution furnishes H30+ions or as a proton donor. Ethanoic, citric and tartaric acids as examples of naturally occurring organic acids, alums as examples of double slats, preparation of salts by neutralization, precipitation and action of acids on metals. Oxides and trioxocarbonate (IV) salts
(b) Qualitative comparison of the conduct ness of molar solutions of strong and weak acids and bases, relationship between conductance, amount of ions present and their relative mobilities.
(c) pH and pOH scale.pH defined as – log[H30+]
(d) Acid/base titrations.
(e) Hydrolysis of salts: Simple examples such as NH4CI, AICI3, NaC03, CH3COONa to be mentioned

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
(i) distinguish between the properties of acids and bases;
(ii) identify the different types of acids and bases;
(iii) differentiate,between-acidity and alkalinity using acid/base
(vi) relate degree of dissociation to strength of acids and bases;
(vii) relate degree of dissociation to conductance;
(viii) perform simple calculation on pH;
(ix) identify the appropriate acid-base indicator;
(x) interpret graphical representation of titration curves;
(xi) perform simple calculations based on the mole concept;.
(xii) balance equations for the hydrolysis of salts;
(xiii) deduce the properties (acidic, basic, neutral) of the resultant solution.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

10. Oxidation and reduction
(a)Oxidation in terms of the addition of oxygen or removal of hydrogen.
(b)Reduction as removal of oxygen or addition of hydrogen.
(c)Oxidation and reduction in terms of electron transfer.
(d)Use of oxidation numbers. Oxidation and reduction treated as change in oxidation. number and use of oxidation numbers in balancing simple equations. IUPAC nomenclature o inorganic compounds.
(e)Tests for oxidizing and reducing agents.

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
(i) identify the various forms of expressing oxidation and reduction;
(ii) classify chemical reactions in terms of oxidation or reduction;
(iii) balance redox reaction, equations;
(iv) deduce the oxidation number of chemical species;
(v) compute the number,.of electron transfer in redox reactions;
(vi) identify the name of redox species using IUPAC nomenclature:
(vii) distinguish between oxidizing and reducing agents in redox reactions.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

11.Electrolysis
(a)Electrolytes and non-electrolytes. Faraday’s laws of electrolysis.
(b)Electrolysis of dilute H2S04, aqueous CuS04, CuCl2,solution, dilute and concentrated NaCl solutions and fused NaCl and factors affecting discharge of ions at the electrodes.
(c)Uses of electrolysis: Purification of metals e.g. copper and production of elements and compounds e.g. Al, Na, 02, Cl2 andNaOH.
(d)Electrochemical cells: Redox series (K, Na. Ca. Mg.AI, Zn, Fe, Pb, H.Cu.Hg. Au,) Half-cell reactions and Electrode potentials. Simple calculations only.
(e)Corrosion as an electrolytic process, cathodic protection of metals, pairing, electroplating and coating with grease or oil as ways of preventing iron from corrosion.

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
(i) identify between electrolytes and non electrolytes;
(ii) perform calculations based on faraday as a mole of electrons.
(iii) identify suitable electrodes for different electrolytes.
(iv) specify the chemical reactions a the electrodes;
(v) determine the products at the electrodes;
(vi) identify the factors that affect the product of electrolysis;
(vii) specify the different areas of application of electrolysis;
(viii) identify the various electrochemical cells;
(ix) calculate electrode potentials using half- cell reaction equations;
(x) determine the different areas of applications of electrolytic processes;
(xi) apply the methods to protect metals.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

12.Energy changes
(a)Energy changes(?H) accompanying physical and chemical changes: dissolution of substances in or reaction with water e.g. Na, NaOH, K, NH4, cl. Endothermic (+?H) and exothermic (-?H) reactions.
(b)Entropy as an order-disorder phenomenon: simple illustration \ like mixing of gases and dissolutioi of salts.
(c)Spontaneity of reactions:
?GO=0 as a criterion for equilibrium, ?GOgreater or less than zero as a criterion for non-spontaneity or spontaneity.

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
(i) determine the types of heat changes (?H) in physical and chemical processes;
(ii) interpret graphical representation fo heat changes;
(iii) relate the physical state of a substance to the degree of orderliness;
(iv) determine the conditions for spontaneity of a reaction;
(v) relate (?H), ?SO and ?GO as driving forces for chemical reactions; (vi) sole simple problems based on the relationships ?GO= ?HOT?SO)

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

13. Rates of Chemical Reaction
(a) Elementary treatment of the following factors which can change the rate of a chemical reaction:
(i) Temperature e.g. the reaction between HCI and Na2S203 or Mg and HCI
(ii) Concentration e.g. the reaction between HCL and Na2S203, HCL and marble and the iodine clock reaction, for gaseous systems, pressure may be used as concentration term.
(iii) Surface area e.g. the reaction between marble and HCI with marble in
(i) powdered form
(ii) lumps of the same mass.
(iv) Catalyst e.g. the decomposition of H202 or KCIO3 in the presence or absence of Mn02
(b)Concentration/time curves.
(c)Activation energy Qualitative treatment of ArrhmuY law and the collision theory, effect of light on some reactions. e.g. halogenation of alkanes

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
(i) identify the factors mat affect the Rates of a chemical reaction;
(ii) determine the effects of these factors on the rate of reactions;
(iii) recommend ways of moderating these effects;
(iv) examine the effect of concentration on the rate of a chemical reaction;
(v) describe how the rate of a chemical reaction is affected by surface area;
(vi) determine the types of catalysts suitable for different reactions.
(vii) interpret reaction rate curves;
(viii) solve simple problems on the rate of reactions;
(x) relate the rate of reaction to the kinetic theory of matter.
(xi) examine the significance of activation energy to chemical reactions.
(xi) deduce the value of activation energy (Ea) from reaction rate curves.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

14. Chemical equilibra
Reversible reaction and factors governing the equilibrium position. Dynamic equilibrium. Le Chatelier’s principle and equilibrium constant. Simple examples to include action of Steam on iron and N204-2N02. No Calculation will be required.

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
(i) identify the factors that affects the position of Equilibrium of a chemical reaction;
(ii) predict the effects of each factor on the position of equilibrium.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

15. Non-metals and their compounds
(a) Hydrogen: commercial production from water gas and cracking of petroleum tractions, laboratory preparation, properties, uses and test for hydrogen.
(b) Halogens: Chlorine as a Representative Element of the halogen Laboratory preparation, industrial preparation by electrolysis, properties and uses, e.g. water sterilization, bleaching, manufacture of HC1, plastics and insecticides. Hydrochloric acid preparation and properties. Chlorides and test for chlorides.
(c)Oxygen and Sulphur
(i) Oxygen:
Laboratory preparation, properties and uses. Commercial production from liquid air. Oxides:
Acidic.basic, amphoteric and neutral, trioxygen (ozone) as an allotrope and the importance of ozone in the atmosphere.
(ii) Sulphur
Uses and allotropes: preparation of allotropes is not expected . Preparation, properties and uses of sulphur (IV) oxide, the reaction of S02 with alkalis Trioxosulphate (IV) acid and its salts, the effect of acids on salts of trioxosulphate(IV),Tetraoxosulphate (IV) acid. Commercial preparation (contact process only), properties as a dilute acid, an Oxidizing and a dehydrating agent and uses Test for SO42- , Hydrogen sulphide: Preparation and Properties as a weak acid, reducing Agent and precipitating agent. Test for S2-
(d)Nitrogen:
(i) Laboratory preparation
(ii) Production from liquid Air
(iii) Ammonia:
Laboratory and industrial Preparations (Haber Process Only), ammonium salts and their uses, oxidation of ammonia to nitrogen (IV) oxide and trioxonitrate (V) acid test NH4+
(iv) Trioxonitrate (V) acid: Laboratory preparation from Ammonia; properties and Uses. Trioxonitrate (V) Salt-action of heat and uses. Test for N03
(V) Oxides of nitrogen:
Properties.
The nitrogen cycle.
(e) Carbon:
(i) Allotropes: Uses and properties
(ii) Carbon (IV) oxide- Laboratory preparation, properties and uses. Action of heat on trioxocarbonate (IV) salts and test for CO32-
(iii) Carbon (II) oxide:Laboratory preparation, properties Including its effect on blood; Sources of carbon (II) oxide to Include charcoal, fire and exhaust fumes.
(iv) Coal: Different types, products Obtained form destructive Distillation of wood and coal.
(v) Coke. Gasification and uses.
Manufacture of synthetic gas

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
(i) predict reagents for the laboratory and industrial preparation of these gases and their compound.
(ii) identify the properties of the gases and their compounds.
(iii) compare the properties of these gases and their compounds.
(iv) specify the uses of each gas and its compounds;
(v) determine the specific test for each gas its compounds.
(vi) determine specific tests for C1-, S042-, S2-, NH4+, N03-, C032-
(vii) identify the allotrope oxygen;
(viii) determine the significance of ozone to our Environment.
(ix) identify the allotropes of sulphur and their uses;
(x) specify the commercial preparation of the acid, its properties and uses;
(xi) predicts reagents for the laboratory Preparation for the gas;
(xii) specify the laboratory and industrial Preparation for the gas
(xiii) use Haber process for the industrial Preparation of ammonia;
(xiv) identify reagents.for het laboratory preparation for the acid, its properties and uses;
(xv) examine the relevance of nitrbgen cylce to the environment.
(xvi) identify allotropes fo carbon;
(xvii) predict reagents for the laboratory preparation of C02;
(xviii) specify the properties of the gas and its uses;
(xiv) determine the test for C02;
(xx) determine the reagents for the Laboratory preparation for the gas;
(xxi) examine its effect on human;
(xxii) identify the different forms of coal:
(xxiiii) determine their uses;
(xxiv) specify the uses of coke and synthetic gas.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

16. Metals and their compounds

(a) Alkali metals e.g. sodium
(i) Sodium hydroxide:- Production by electrolysis of Brine, its action on aluminium zinc and lead ions. Uses including precipitation of metallic hydroxides.
(ii) Sodium trioxo carbonate (IV) and sodium hydrogen trioxocarbonate (IV): Production by Solvay process, properties and uses, e.g. Na2C03 in the manufacture of glass.
(iii) Sodium chloride: its occurrence in Sea water and uses, the economic Importance fo seawater and the Recovery fo sodium chloride.

(b) Alkaline-earth meals, e.g. calcium; Calcium oxide, calcium hydroxide And calciumtrioxocarbonate (IV); Properties and uses. Preparation of Calcium oxide from sea shells, the Chemical composition for cement And the setting of mortar. Test For Ca2+.

(c) Alimimium Purification of bauxite, Electrolytic extraction properties and uses of aluminium and its compounds. Test for Al3+

(d) Tin Extraction form tis ores. Properties and uses.

(e) Metals of the first transition series.
Characteristic properties:
(i) electron configuration
(ii) oxidation states
(iii) complex ion formation
(iv) formation of coloured ions

(f) Iron
Extraction form sulphide and oxide Ores, properties and uses, Different forms of iron and their Properties and advantages of steel over iron.
Test for Fe2+ and Fe3+

(g) Copper
Extraction from sulphide andoxide Ores, properties and uses of copper Salts, preparation and uses of copper (II) tetraoxosulphate (VI)
Test for Cu2+
(h) Alloys Steel, stainless steel, brass, bronze, Type-metal, duralumin and soft Solder (constituents and uses only).

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
(i) determine the method for extraction suitable For each metal;
(ii) relate the methods of extraction to the Properties for the metals;
(iii) compare the chemical reactivities of the metals;
(iv) specify the uses of the metals;
(v) determine specific test for metallic ions;
(vi) determine the process for the production of the compounds of these metals;
(vii) compare the chemical reactivities pf the compounds.
(viii) specify the uses fo these compounds;
(ix) determine the processes for the Preparation of the compounds of the metal;
(x) describe the method of purification of bauxite
(xi) relate the method of extraction to it properties
(xii) specify the uses of tin;
(xiii) identify the general properties of the first transition metals;
(xiv) deduce reasons for the specific properties of the transition metals;
(xv) determine the IUPAC names of simple Transition metal complexes.
(xvi) determine the suitable method of Extraction for the metal;
(xvii) specify the properties and uses of the metal;
(xviii)identify the appropriate method of extraction for the metal and itscompounds.
(xix) relate the properties of the metal and its compound to their uses.
(xix) specify the constituents and uses of the various alloys mentioned.
(xx) specify the constituents and uses o: the various alloys mentioned;
(xxi) compare the properties and uses of alloys to pure metals.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

17. Organic Compounds
An introduction to the tetravalency of carbon, the general formula, IUP AC nomenclature and the determination of empirical formula of each class of the organic compounds mentioned below.

(a) Aliphatic hydrocarbons
(i)Alkanes Homologous series in relation to physical properties, substitution reaction and a feu examples and uses of halogenated products. Isomerism: structural only (examples on isomerism should not go beyond six carbon atoms). Petroleum: c o m p o s i t i o n, Fractional distillation and major products; cracking and reforming, Petrochemicals -starting materials of organic syntheses, quality of petrol and meaning ofoctane number.
(ii) Alkenes Isomerism: structural and geometric Isomerism, additional and Polymerization reactions, polythene And synthetic rubber as examples of Products of polymerization and its use In vulcanization.
(iii) Alkynes Ethyne – production form action of Water on carbides, simple reactions and Properties of ethyne.

(b) Aromatic hydrocarbons e.g. benzene – Structure, properties and uses.

(c) Alkanols Primary, secondary, tertiary -production Of ethanol by fermentation and form Petroleum by¬products. Local examples of fermentation and distillation, e.g. Gin from palm wine and other local Sources and glycerol as a polyhydric alkanol. Reactions of OH group – oxidation as a distinguishing test between primary,. Secondary and tertiary alkanols.

(d)Alakanals and alkanones. Chemical test to distinguish between Alakanals and alkanones.

(e)Alkanoic acids. Chemical reactions; neutralization and Esterification, ethanedioic (oxalic) acid As an example of a dicarboxylic acid And benzene carboxylic acid as an example of an aromatic acid.

(f)Alkanoates Formation from alkanoic acids and Alkanols – fats and oils as alkanoates Saponification: Production of soap and margarine from Alkanoates and distinction between Detergents and soaps.

(g) Amines (Alkanamines) Primary, Secondary, tertiary

(h) Carbohydrates Classification – mono, di and polysaccharides, composition, chemical Tests for simple sugars and reaction With concentrated tetraoxosulphate (VI) Acid. Hydrolysis of Complex sugar e.g. cellulose form cotton and starch fron cassava, the uses of sugar and starch in athe production of alcoholic beverage, pharmaceuticast and textiles.
(i) Giant molecules e.g. proteins, enzymes, Natural rubbers and polymers.

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
(i) derive the name of organic compounds form their general formulae;
(ii) relate the name of a compound to its structure
(iii) relate the tetravalency of carbon to its ability to form chains of compound (catenation);
(iv) classify compounds according to their Functional groups;
(v) derive empirical formula and molecular formula, given data;
(vi) relate structure/functional groups tc specific Properties;
(vii) derive various isomeric form from given formula;
(viii) distinguish between the different types of Isomerism;
(ix) classify the various types of hydrocarbon;.
(x) distinguish each class of hydrocarbon by their properties
(xi) specify the uses of various hydrocarbons;
(xii) identify crude oil as a complex mixture of hydrocarbon;
(xiii) relate the fractions of hydrpcarboi to their Properties and sues;
(xiv) relate transformation process to quality Improvement of the fractions. xv) distinguishing between various polymerization processes.
(xvi) distinguishing between aliphatic and Aromatic hydrocarbons;
(xvii) relate the properties of benzene to its structure
(xviii)compare the various classes of alkanols;
(xix) determine the processes involved in ethanol Production;
(xx) examine the importance of ethanol as an Alternative energy provider.
(xxi) differentiate between alkanals and alkanones;
(xxii) compare the various classes of alkanoic acid;
(xxiii) identify natural sources of alkanoates;
(xxiv) specify the sues of alkanoates;
(xxv) distinguish between detergent and soap;
(xxvi) compare the various classes of alkanamine;
(xxvii) identify the natural sources of carbohydrates and giant molecules;
(xxviii)compare the various classes of carbohydrates;
(xxix) infer the product of hydrolysis of carbohydrates;
(xxx) determine the uses of carbohydrates;
(xxxi) reale giant molecuales to their uses

RECOMMENDED TEXTS

Ababio, O.Y. (2005) New School Chenistiy for Senior Secodnary Schools, (Third Edition), Onitsha: Africana FIRST Publishers Limited

Bajah, S.T. Teibi, B.O. Onwu, G and Obikwere, A. (1999) Senior Secodnary Chemistry, Book 1, Lagos: Longman

Bajah, S.T. Teibo, B.O. Onwu, G and Onikwere, A. 2000) Senior Secondary Chemsitry, Book 2 and 3, Lagos: Longman

Ohia, G.N.C. Adewoyin, F.A. and Akpan, B.B. (1997) Exam Focus Chenistiy for WASSCE & JME: Ibadan: University Press Pic

STAN (1987) Chemsitry for Senor Seconary Schools, Ibadan: Heinemann

Sylvesta: O.O. (2004) A Comprehesnive Practical Chemistry for Senior Secondary Schools, Ibadan: Evans

Uche, I.O. Adenuga, I J. and Iwuagwu, S.L. (2003) Countdown to WASSCE/SSpE, NECO, JME Chemsitry, Ibadan: Evans

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PHYSICS

GENERAL OBJECTIVES.

The aim of the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) syllabus in Physics is to prepare the candidates for the Board’s examination. It is designed to test their achievement of the course objectives, which are to:

(1) sustain their interest in physics;
(2) develop attitude relevant to physics that encourage accuracy, precision and objectivity;
(3) interpret physical phenomena, laws, definitions, concepts and other theories;
(4) demonstrate the ability to solve correctly physics problems using relevant theories and concepts.

DETAILED SYLLABUS

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES.

1. MEASUREMENTS AND UNITS
(a)Length area and volume:
Metre rule, Venier calipers.
Micrometer Screw-guage.

(b) Mass
(i) unit of mass.
(ii) use of simple beam balance.

(c) Time
(i) unit of time.
(ii) time-measuring devices.

(d) Fundamental physical quantities

(e) Derived physical quantities and their units.
(i) Combinations of fundamental quantities and determination of their units.

(f) Dimensions
(i) definition of dimensions.
(ii) simple examples.

(g)Limitations of experimental measurements
(i) accuracy of measuring instruments
(ii)simple estimation of errors.
(iii)significant figures.
(iv) standard form.

OBJECTIVES.
Candidates should be able to:

i. identify the units of length area and volume;
ii.use different measuring instruments;
iii.determine the lengths, surface areas and volume of regular and irregular bodies;
iv. identify the unit of mass;
v. use simple beam balance, e.g Buchart’s balance and chemical balance;
vi. identify the unit of time;
vii.use different time-measuring devices;
viii.relate the fundamental physical quantities to their units;
ix. deduce the units of derived physical quantities;
x. determine the dimensions of physical quantities;
xi. use the dimensions to determine the units of physical quantities;
xii. test the homogeneity of an equation;
xiii.determine the accuracy of measuring instruments:
xiv. estimate simple errors;
xv. express measurements in standard form.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES.

2.Scalars and Vectors
(i) definition of scalar and vector quantities.
(ii) examples of scalar and vector quantities.
(iii) relative velocity.
(iv) resolution of vectors into two Perpendicular directions including graphical methods of solution.

OBJECTIVES.
Candidates should be able to:

i. distinguish between scalar and vector quantities;
ii.give examples of scalar and vector quantities;
iii.determine the resultant of two or more vectors;
iv. determine relative velocity;
v. resolve vectors into two perpendicular components;
vi. use graphical methods to solve vector problems.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES.

3. Motion
(a) Types of motion: translational, oscillatory, rotational, spin and random
(b) linear motion.
(i) speed, velocity and aceleration.
(ii)equations of uniformly accelerated motion.
(iii) motion under gravity.
(iv) distance-time graph and velocity time graph.
(v) instantaneous velocity and acceleration.
(c) Projectiles:
(i) calculation of range, maximum height and time of flight
(ii)applications of projectile motion
(d) Newton’s laws of motion:
(i) inertia, mass and force.
(ii) relationship between mass and acceleration.
(iii) impulse and momentum.
(iv) conservation of linear momentum (Coefficient of restitution not necessary).

(e) Motion in a circle:
(i) angular velocity and angular acceleration.
(ii)centripetal and centrifugal.

(f.) Simple Harmonic Motion (S.H.M.):
(i) definition and explanation of simple harmonic motion.
(ii) examples of systems that excutes S.H.M.
(iii)period frequency and amplitude of S.H.M.
(iv) velocity and acceleration of S.H.M.
(v) energy change in S.H.M.

OBJECTIVES.
Candidates should be able to :

i. identify different types of motion ;
ii.differentiate between speed, velocity and acceleration;
iii.deduce equations of uniformly accelerated motion;
iv. solve problems of motion under gravity;
v. interpret distance-time graph and velocity-time graph;
vi. compute instantaneous velocity and acceleration
vii.establish expressions for the range, maximum height and time of flight of projectiles;
viii.solve problems involving projectile motion;
ix. interpret Newton’s laws of motion;
x. compare inertia, mass and force;
xi. deduce the relationship between mass and acceleration;
xii. solve numerical problems involving impulse and momentum;
xiii.interpret the law of conservation of linear momentum;
xiv. establish expression for angular velocity, angular
acceleration and centripetal force; applications
xv. solve numerical problems involving motion in a circle;
xvi.establish the relationship between period and frequency;
xvii.analyse the energy changes occurring during S.H.M.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

4. Gravitational field
(i) Newton’s Law of universal gravitation.
(ii) gravitational potential.
(iii.conservative and non conservative fields.
(iv) acceleration due to gravity [g=GM/R].
(v) variation of g on the earth’s surface.
(vi) distinction between mass and weight.
(vii)escape velocity.
(viiiIparking orbit and weightlessness.

OBJECTIVES.
Candidate should be able to:

(i) Identify the expressions for gravitational force between two bodies;
(ii)Apply Newton’s law of universal gravitation;
(iii)Give examples of conservative and non-conservative and non-conservation fileds;
(iv)deduce the expression for gravitational field potential.
(v)identify the causes of variation of g on the earth’s surface;
(vi)differentiate between mass amd weight.
(vii)determine escape velocity.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES.

5. Equilibrium of Forces.
(a)equilibrium of a particular.
(i)equilibrium of coplanar forces.
(ii)triangles and polygon of forces.
(iii)Lami’s theorem.

(b)Principles of moments
(i) momemt of a force.
(ii) simple treatment and moment of a couple (torgue).
(iii)application.

(c)conditions for equilibrium of rigid bodies under the action of parallel and non – parallel forces.
(i)resolution and composition of forces in two perpendicular directions.
(ii)resultant and equilibrant.
(d)center of gravity and stability.
(i)stable, unstable and neutral equilibrate.

OBJECTIVES.
Candidate must be able to:

i.apply the conditions for the equilibrium of coplanar foirce to solve problems;
ii.use triangle and polygon laws of forces to solve equilibrium problems
iii.use Lami’s theorem to solve problems
iv.analyse the principle of moment of a force
v.determine moment of a force and couple
vi.describe some applications of moment of a force and couple.
vii.apply the conditions for the equilibrium of rigid bodies to solve problems
viii.resolve forces into two perpendicular directions;
ix.determine the resultant and equilibrium of forces
x. differentiate between stable, unstable and neutral equilibrium

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES.

6. Work Energy and Power.
(i) definition of work, energy and power.
(ii) forms of energy.
(iii)conservation of energy.
(iv) qualitative treatment between different forms of energy.
(v) interpretation of area under the force-distance curve.

OBJECTIVES.
Candidates should be able to:

i. differentiate between work, energy and power;
ii.compare different forms of energy, giving examples;
iii.apply the principle of conservation of energy;
iv. examine the transformation between different forms of energy;.
v. interpret the area under the force -distance curve.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES.

7.Friction
(i) static and dynamic friction.
(ii)coefficient of limiting friction and its determination.
(iii)advantages and disadvantages of friction.
(iv) reduction of friction qualitative treatment of viscosity and terminal viscosity.
(V) stoke’s law.

OBJECTIVES.
Candidates should be able to:

i. differentiate between static and dynamic friction
ii.determine the coefficient of limiting friction;
iii.compare the advantages and disadvantage of friction;
iv. suggest ways by which friction can be reduced;
v. analyse factors that affect viscosity and terminal velocity;
vi. apply stoke’s law.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES.

8.Simple Machines.
(i) definition of machine.
(ii)types of machines.
(iii)mechanical advantage,velocity ratio and efficiency of
machines.

OBJECTIVES.
Candidates should be able to:

i. identify different types of machines;
ii. solve problems involving simple machines.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES.
.
9.Elasticity
(i) elastic limit, yield point, breaking point, Hooke’s law and Young’s modulus.
(ii) the spring balance as a device for measuring force.
(iii) work done in springs and elastic Strings.

OBJECTIVES.
Candidates should be able to:

i. interpret force-extension curves; .
ii. interpret Hooke’s law and Young’s modulus of a material; ,
iii use spring balance to measure force;
iv. determine the work done in spring and elastic strings.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES.

10.Pressure
(a) Atmospheric Pressure.
(i) definition of atmospheric pressure.
(ii) units of pressure (S.I) units.
(iii) measurement of pressure.
(iv) simple mercury.baromcter,aneroid barometer and manometer.
(v) variation of pressure with height.
(vi) the use of barometer as an altimeter.

(b) Pressure in liquids
(i) the relationship between pressure, depth and density (P = pgh).
(ii) transmission of pressure in liquids (Pascal’s Principle).
(iii)application.

OBJECTIVES.
Candidates should be able to:

i. recognize the S.I units of pressure;
ii. identify pressure measuring instruments;
iii. relate the variation of pressure to height;
iv. use a barometer as an altimeter.
v. determine the relationship between pressure, depth and density;
vi. apply the principle of transmission of pressure in liquids to solve problems;
vii. determine the application of pressure in liquid;

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
11.Liquids At Rest
(i) determination of density of solid and liquids
(ii) definition of relative density
(iii)upthrust on a body immersed in a liquid
(iv) Archimede’s principle and law of floatation and applications, e.g. ships and hydrometers.

OBJECTIVES.
Candidates should be able to:
i. distinguish between density and relative density of substances;
ii. determine the upthrust on a body immersed in a liquid;
iii. apply Archimedes’ principle and law of floatation to solve problems.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES.

12.Temperature and Its Measurement
(i) concept of temperature.
(ii) thermometric properties.
(iii)calibration of thermometers.
(iv) temperature scales —Celsius and Kelvin.
(v) types of thermometers.
(vi) conversion from one scale of temperature to another.

OBJECTIVES.
Candidates should be able to:

i.identify thermometric properties of materials that’are used for different thermometers;
ii.calibrate thermometers;
iii.differentiate between temperature scales e.g Clesius and Kelvin.
iv. compare the types of thermometers;
vi. convert from one scale of temperature to another.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES.

13. Thermal Expansion
(a) Solids
(i) definition and determination of linear, volume and area expansivities
(ii) effects and applications, e.g. expansion in building strips and railway lines
(iii) relationship between different expansivities

(b) Liquids

(i) volume expansivity.
(ii) real and apparent expansivities.
(iii) determination of volume expansivity.
(iv) anomalous expansion of water.

OBJECTIVES.
Candidates should be able to:

i. determine linear and volume expansivities;
ii.assess the effects and applications of thermal expansivities.
iii.determine the relationship between different expansivities.
iv. determine volume, apparent, and real expansivities of liquids;
v. analyse the anomalous expansion of water.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES.

14.Gas Laws
(i) Boyle’s law (PV = constant).
(ii)Charle’s law ( V/P = constant).
(iii)Pressure law ( P/T = constant).
(iv) Absolute zero of temperature.
(v) General gas equation ( PV /T= constant).
(vi) Ideal gas equation (Pv=n RT).

OBJECTIVES.
Candidates should be able to:

i. interpret the gas laws;
ii.use expression of these laws to solve numerical problems.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES.

15.Quantity of Heat
(i) heat as a form of energy;
(ii)definition of heat capacity and specific heat capacity of solids and liquids;
(iii)determination of heat capacity and specific heat capacity of substances by simple methods e.g method of mixtures and electrical method.

OBJECTIVES.
Candidates should be able to:

i. differentiate between heat capacity and specific heat capacity;
ii. determine heat capacity and specific heat capacity using simple methods;
iii.examine some numerical problems.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES.

16.Change of State
(i) latent heat;
(ii) specific latent heats of fusion and vaporization;
(iii)melting, evaporation and boiling;
(iv) the influence of pressure and of dissolved substances on boiling and melting points;
(v) application in appliances.

OBJECTIVES.
Candidates should be able to:

i. differentiate between latent heat and specific latent heats of fusion and vaporization;
ii.differentiate between melting, evaporation and boiling;
iii.examine the effects of pressure and of dissolved substance on boiling and melting points.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES.

17.Vapours
(i) unsaturated and saturated vapours;
(ii) relationship between saturated vapour pressure (S.V.P) and boiling;
(iii)determination of S.V.P by barometer tube method;
(iv) formation of dew, mist, fog, and rain;
(v) study of dew point, humidity and relative humidity;
(vi) hygrometry; estimation of the humidity of the atmosphere using wet and dry bulb hydrometers.

OBJECTIVES.
Candidates should be able to:

i. distinguish between saturated and unsaturated vapours;
ii.relate saturated vapour pressure to boiling point;
iii.determine S.V.P by barometer tube method;
iv. differentiate between dew point, humidity and relative humidity;
v estimate the humidity of the atmosphere using wet and dry bulb hydrometers.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES.

18.Structure of Matter and Kinetic Theory
(a) Molecular nature of matter
(i) atoms and molecules;
(ii) molecular theory:explanation of Brownian motion, diffusion, surface tension, capillarity, adhesion, cohesion and angles of contact;
(iii) examples and applications.

(b)Kinetic Theory
(i) assumptions of the kinetic theory;
(ii) using the theory to explain the pressure exerted by gas, Boyle’s,Charles’ law,melting,boiling,vapourization,change in temprature evaporation,etc.

OBJECTIVES.
Candidates should be able to:

i. differentiate between atoms and molecules;
ii. use molecular theory to explain Brownian motion, diffusion, surface, tension, capillarity, adhesion, cohesion and angle of contact;
iii.examine the assumptions of kinetic theory;
iv. interpret kinetic theory, the pressure exerted by gases Boyle’s law, Charles law melting, boiling vaporization, change in temperature, evaporation, etc

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES.

19. Heat Transfer
(i) Condition, convetion and radiation as modes of heat transfer
(ii)Temperature gradient, thermal conductivity and heat flux
(iii)Effect of the nature of the surface on the energy radiated and absorbed by it.
(iv) The conductivites of common materials
(v) The thrmos flask Land and sea breeze

OBJECTIVES.
Candidates should be able to:

i. differentiate between conduction , convention and radiation as modes of heart transfer;
ii. determine temperature gradient, thermal conductivity and heat flux
iii.assess the effect of the nature of the surface on the energy radiated and absorbed by it;
iv. compare the conductivities of commonmaterials;
v. relate the component part of the working of the thermo flask;
vi. different between land and sea breeze.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES.

20. Waves
(a)Production and propagation
(i) Wave motion.
(ii) Vibrating systems as source of waves.
(iii) Waves as mode of energy transfer.
(iv) distinction between particle motion and wave motion.
(v) relationship between frequency wavelength and wave velocity (v=f?).
(vi) phase difference.
(vii) progressive wave equation e.g y=A sin (2 p(vt+x))/?.

(b) Classification
(i) Types of waves; mechanical and electromagnetic waves.
(ii) Longitudinal and transverse waves.
(iii)Stationery and progressive waves
(iv) Examples of waves from springs, ropes, stretched strings and the ripple tank.

(c) Chracteristics/Properties
(i) Reflection, refractions, diffraction and plane Polarization
(ii)Superposition of waves e.g interference

OBJECTIVES.
Candidate should be able to:

i. Interpret wave motion;
ii. Identify vibrating systems as sources of waves;
iii.Use waves as a mode of energy transfer;
iv. Distinguish between particle motion and wave motion;
v. Relate frequency and wave length to wave velocity;
vi. Determine phase difference;
vii.Use the progressive wave equation to compute basic wave parameters;
viii.Differentiate between mechanical and electromagnetic waves;
ix. Differentiate between longitudinal and transverse waves;
x. Distinguish between stationary and progressive waves;
xi. Indicate the example of waves generated from springs, ropes, stretched strings and the ripple tank;
xii.Differenctiate between reflection, refraction, diffraction and plane polarization of waves.
xiii. Analyse the principle of superposition of waves.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES.

21. Propagation of sound waves
(i) the necessity for a material medium;
(ii) speed of sound in solids, liquids and air;
(iii)reflection of sound; echoes, reverberation and their applications;
(iv) disadvantages of echoes and reverberations.

OBJECTIVES.
Candidate should be able to:

i. determine the need for a metrial medium in the propagation of sound waves;
ii. compare the speed of sound in solids liquid and air;
iii.relate the effects of temperature and pressure to the speed of sound in air
solve problem on echoes, reverberation;
iv. compare the disadvantages and echoes.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES.

22. Characteristics of sound waves
(i) noise and musical notes;
(ii) quality, pitch, intensity application and loudness and their application to musical instruments;
(iii)simple treatment of overtones produced by vibrating strings and their coloumns [F=L/2Lv(T/M)];
(iv) acoustic examples of resonance;
(v) frequency of a note emitted by air columns in closed and open pipes in relation to their lengths.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES.

23. Light Energy
(a) Source of Light:
(i) natural and artificial source of light.
(ii)Luminous and non-luminous objects.

(b) Propagation of light
(i) Speed frequency and wavelength of light.
(ii) Formation of shadows and eclipse.
(iii)The pin-hole camera.

OBJECTIVES.
Candidate should be able to:

i. Compare the natural and artificial sources of light.
ii. Differentiate between luminous and non luminous object.
iii.Relate the speed, frequency and wavelength of light.
iv. Interpret the formation of shadows and eclipse.
v. Solve problems using the principle of operation of a pin-hole camera.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES.

24. Reflection of light a Plane and curved surfaces
(i) laws of reflection.
(ii) application of reflection of light.
(iii)Formation of images by plane concave and convex mirrors and ray diagrams
(iv) use of the mirror formula.
[1/f=(1/u)+(1/v).
(v) Linear magnification.

OBEJCTIVES.
Candidates should be able to:

i. Interpret the laws of reflection;
ii. Illustrate the formation of images by plane, concave and convex mirros;
iii.Apply the mirror formula to solve optical problems;
iv. Determine the linear magnification;
v. Apply the laws of reflection of light to the working of periscope, kaleidoscope and the sextant.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES.

25. Refraction of light through
(a) Plane and Curved Surface
(i) explanation of refraction in terms of velocity of light in the media;
(ii) laws of refraction;
(iii)definition of refraction index of a medium;
(iv) determination of refraction index of glass and liquid using Snell’s law;
(v) real and apparent depth and lateral displacement;
(vI) critical angle and total internal reflection.

(b) Glass Prism
(i) Use of the minimum deviation formula.
U=(sin((A+D)/2))/sin(A/2).
(ii) Type of lenses.
(iii)Use of formula 1/f = (1/u) + (1/v).
(iv) magnification.

OBJECTIVES.
Candidates should be able to:

i. interpret the laws of refelction ;
ii. determine the refractive index of glass and liquid using Snell’s law;
iii.determine the refractive index using the principle of real and apparent depth
iv. determine the conditions necessary for total internal refelction;
v. examine the use of periscope, prism, binoculars, optical fibre;
vi. Apply the principles of total internal reflection to the formula of mirage;
vii.Use of lens formula and ray diagrams to solve optical numerical problems;
viii.Determine the magnification of an image;
ix. Calculate the refractive index of a glass prism suing minimum deviation formula.

TOPIC/CONTENT/NOTEs.

26. Optical Instruments
(i) the principles of miscroscopes, telescopes, projections, cameras and the human eye(physiological details of the eye are not required).
(ii)power of a lens.
(iii)Angular magnification.
(iV) near and far points.
(v) site defects and their corrections.

OBJECTIVES.
Candidates should be able to:

i. apply the principles of operation of optical instruments to solve problems;
ii. distinguish between the human eye and the cameras;
iii.calculate the power of a lens;
iv. determine the angular magnification of optical instruments;
v. determine the near and far points;
vi. detect sight defects and their corrections.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES.

27 (a) dispersion of light and colours
(i) Dispersion of white light by a triangular prism.
(ii) Production of pure spectrum.
(iii)Colour mixing by addition and subtraction.
(iv) Colour of objects abd colour filters.

(b) electromagnetic spectrum
(i) description of sources and uses of various types of radiation.

OBJECTIVES.
Candidates should be able to:

i. Relate the expression for gravitational force between two bodies;
ii. Apply Newton’s laws of universal gravitation;
iii.Identify primary colours and obtain secondary colour by mixing;
iv. Deduces why objects have colours;
v. Analyse colours using colour filters;
vi. Analayse the electromagnetic spectrum in relation to their wavelengths, sources, detection and uses.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES.

28. Electrostatics
(i) existence of ositive and negative charges in matter.
(ii) charging a body by friction, contact and induction.
(iii)electroscope.
(iv) Coulomb’s inverse square law electric field and potential.
(v) electric field and potential.
(vi) electric discharge and lightening.

OBJECTIVES.
Candidate should be able to:

i. Identify charges
ii. Examine uses of an electronscope
iii.apply coulomb’s square law of electrostatic to solve problems
iv. deduce expression for electric field and potential
v. identify electric field flux patterns of isolated and interacting charges
vi. analyze the distribution of charges on a conductor and how it is used in lightening conductors.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES.

29. Capacitors
(i) Functions of capacitors
(ii) Parallel plate capacitors
(iii)Capacitance of a capacitors
(iv) The relationship between capacitance, area separation of plates and medium between the plates [C=3A/d].
(v) Capacitors in series and parallel
(vi) Energy stored in a capacitor

OBJECTIVES.
Candidate should be able to:

i. determine uses of capacitors;
ii. analyse parallel plate capacitors;
iii.determine the capacitance of a capacitor;
iv. analyse the factors that affect the capacitance of a capacitor;
v. solve problems involving the arrangement of capacitor;
vi. determine the energy stored in capacitors.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES.

30. Electric Cells
(i) simple voltaic cell and its defects;
(ii) Daniel cell, Leclanche cell (wet and dry);
(iii) lead acid accumulator and Nickel Iron (Nife) Lithium Ion and Mercury cadmium;
(iv) maintenance of cells and batteries (detail treatment of the chemistry of a cell is not required;
(v) arrangement of cell.

OBJECTIVES.
Candidate should be able to:

i. identify the defects of the simple voltaic cell and their corrected;
ii. compare different types of cells including solar cell;
iii.compare the advantages of lead-acid and Nikel iron accumulator;
iv. citance of a capacitor
v. solve problems involving series and parallel combination of cells.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES.

31. Current Electricity
(i) electromagnetic force (emf), potential difference (p.d.), current, internal resistance of a cell and lost volt.
(ii) Ohm’s law.
(iii) measurement of resistance.
(iv) meter bridge.
(v) resistance in series and in parallel and their combination.
(vi) the potentiometer method of measuring emf, current and internal resistance of a cell.

OBJECTIVES.
Candidate should be able to:

i. differentiate between emf p.d current and internal resistance of a cell;
ii. apply ohm’s law to solve problems;
iii.Use meter bridge to calculate resistance;
iv. Compute effective total resistance of both parallel and series arrangement of resistors;
v. determine the resistivity and the conductivity of a conductor;
vi. measure emf current and internal resistance of a cell using the potentiometer.

TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES.

32.Electrical Energy and Power
(i) concepts of electrical energy and power.
(ii) commercial unit of electric energy and power.
(iii)electric power transmission.
(iv) heating effects of electric current.

OBJECTIVES.
Candidates should be able to:

i. apply the expressions of electrical energy and power to solve problems;
ii. analyse how power is transmitted from the power station to the consumer;
iii.identify the heating effects, of current and its uses.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES.

33.Magnets and Magnetic Fields
(i) natural and artificial magnets;
(ii) magnetic properties of soft iron and steel;
(iii)methods of making magnets and demagnetization;
(iv) concept of magnetic field;
(v) magnetic field of a permanent magnet;
(vi) magnetic field round a straight current carrying conductor, circular wire and solenoid.
(vii)properties of the earth’s magnetic Meld; north and south poles, magnetic meridian and angle of dip and declination
(viii)flux and flux density
(ix) variation of magnetic field intensity over the earth’s surface
(x) applications: earth’s magnetic field in navigation and mineral exploration.

OBJECTIVES.
Candidates should be able to:

i. give examples of natural and artificial magnets;
ii. differentiate between the magnetic properties of soft iron and steel;
iii. identify the various methods of making magnets and demagnetizing magnets;
iv. describe how to keep a magnet from losing its magnetism;
v. determine the flux pattern exhibited when two magnets are placed together pole to pole;
vi. determine the flux of a current carrying conductor, circular wire and solenoid including the polarity of the solenoid;
vii. determine the flux pattern of magnetic placed in the earth’s magnetic fields;
viii.identify the magnetic elements of the earth’s flux;
ix. determine the variation of earth’s magnetic field on the earth’s surface;
x. examine the applications of the earth’s magnetic field.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES.

34.Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor in a Magnetic Field
(i) quantitative treatment of force between two parallel current carrying conductors.
(ii) Force on a charge moving in a magnetic field.
(iii)The dc motor.
(iv) Electromagnets.
(v) Carbon microphone.
(vi) Moving coil and moving iron instruments.
(vii)Conversion of galvanometers to ammeters and voltmeter using shunts and multipliers.

OBJECTIVES.
Candidates should be able to:

i. determine the direction of force on a current carrying conductor using Fleming’s left-hand rule:
ii. interpret the attractive and repulsive forces between two parallel current carrying conductors using diagrams:
iii.determine the relationship between the force, magnetif field strength, velocity and the angle though which the charge enters the field
iv. interpret the working of the d. c. motor
v. analyse the principle of electromagnets give examples of its application
vi. compare moving iron and moving coil instruments
vii.converts a galvanometer into an ammeter or a voltmeter

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES.

35. (a) Electromagnetic Induction.
(i) Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction.
(ii)Factors affecting induced emf.
(iii)Lenz’s law as an illustration of the principle of conservation of energy .
(iv) a.c and d.c generators.
(v) Transformers.
(vi) The induction coil.

(b) Inductance
(i) Explanation of inductance.’
(ii) Unit of inductor.
(iii) Energy stored ina n inductance
E= 1I2 L/2.
(iv) Application/uses of inductors.

c.Eddy Current

i. reduction of eddy current.
ii. application of eddy current.

OBJECTIVES.
Candidates should be able to:

i. interpret the laws of electromagnetic induction;
ii. identify the factors affecting induced emf;
iii.recognize how Lenz’ law illustrates the principle of conservation of energy;
iv. interpret the diagrammatic setup of A.C. generators;
v. indentify the types of transformer;
vi. examine principles of operation of transformers;
vii.assess the functions of an induction coil;
viii.draw some conclusions from the principles of operation of an induction coil;
ix. interpret the inductance of an inductor;
x. recognize units of inductance of an inductor;
xi. calculate the effective total inductance in series and parallel arrangement;
xii. deduce the expression for the energy stored in an inductor;
xiii.examine the applications of inductors;
xiv. describe the method by which eddy current losses can be reduced;
xv. determine the ways by which eddy current can be used.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES.

36. Simple A.C. Circuits
i. Explanation of a.c current and voltage.
ii. Peak and r.m.s values.
iii A.C. sources connected to a resistor.
iv. A.C. sources connected to a capacitor-capacitive reactance.
v. A.C. sources connected to an inductor-inductive reactance.
vi. Series R-L-C circuits.
vii.Vector diagram.
viii.Reactance and impedance of alternative quantities
ix. Effective voltage in an R-L-C circuits
x. Resonance and resonance frequency
[F0 =1/(2pvLC)

OBJECTIVES.
Candidate should be able to:

i. identify A.C. current of and d. d. voltage;
ii. differentiate between the peak and r.m.s. values of a.c;
iii. determine the phase difference between current and voltage;
iv. nterpret series R-L-C circuit;
v. analyse vector diagrams;
vi. calculate the effective voltage reactance and impedance;
vii. recognize the condition by which the circuit is at resonance;
viii.determine the resonant frequency of R-L-C arrangement;
ix. determine the instantaneous power, average power and the power factor in a circuit.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES.

37. Conduction of Electricity through liquid
(a) liquids.
(i) electrolytes and non electrolytes.
(ii) concept of electrolysis.
(iii) Faradays law of electroysis.
(iv) application of electrolysis e.g electroplating, calibration of ammeter etc.

(b) gases
(i) discharges through gases(quantitative treatment only).
(ii) application of conduction of electricity through gases.

OBJECTIVES:
Candidate should be able to:

i. distinguish between electrolytes and non-electrolytes
ii. analyse the processes of electrolytes
iii.apply faraday’s laws of electrolysis to solve problems
iv. analyse discharge through gases
v. determine some applications/uses of conduction of electricity through gases.

TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES.

38. Elementary Modern Physics.
(i) models of the atom and their limitations.
(ii) elementary structure of the atom.
(iii) energy level and spectra.
(iv) thermionic and photoelectric emissions.
(v) einstein’s equation and stopping potential.
(vi) applications of thermionic emissions and photoelectric effects.
(vii) simple method of production of x-rays.
(viii)properties and applications of alpha, beta and gamma rays.
(xiii)halflife and decay constant.
(xiv) simple ideas of production energy by fission.
(xv) binding energy, mass defect and Eintein’s Energy equation[?E=?Mc^2.
(xvi) wave-particle paradox (duality of matter).
(xvii)electron diffraction.
(xviii)the uncertainty principle.

OBJECTIVES.
Candidate should be able to:

i. identify the models of the atom and write their limitation;
ii. describe elementary structure of the atom;
iii.differentiate between the energy levels and spectra of atom;
iv. compare thermionic emission and photoelectric effects;
v. apply Einstein’s equation to solve problems of photoelectric effect;
vi. calculate the stopping potential;
vii.relate some application of thermionic emission and photoelectric effects;
viii.interpret the process involved in the production of x-rays;
ix. identify come properties and application of x-rays;
x. analyse elementary radioactivity;
xi. distinguish between stable and unstable nuclei;
xii.Identify isotopes of an element;
xiii.compare the properties of alpha beta and gamma rays;
xiv. relate half life and decay constant of a radioactive element;
xv. determine the binding energy, mass defect and Einsteins’s energy equation;
xvi. analyse wave particle duality;
xvii.Solve some numerical problems based on the uncertainty principle.

TOPIC/COMMENT/NOTES.

39. Introductory Electronics
(i) distinguish between metals semi conductors and insulators(elementary knowledge of band gap is required).
(ii) intrinsic and extrinsic semi conductor
(iii)uses of semiconductors and diodes in rectification and transistors in amplification.
(iv) n-type and p-type semi-conductors.
(v) elementary knowledge of diode and transistors.
(vi) use of semiconductors and diodes in rectification and transistors in amplification.

OBJECTIVES.
Candidates ’should be able to:
i. differentiate between conductors, semi conductors and insulators;
ii. distinguish between intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors;
iii.distinguish between electron and hole carrier;
iv. distinguish between n-type and p-type semi-conductor;
v. analyse diodes to rectification and transistor to amplification.

Physics

RECOMMENDED TEXTS

1.Okeke, P. N and Anyakoha, M. W (2000) Senior Secondary School Physics,
Lagos: Pacific Printers
2.Olumuyionwa A. and Ogunkoya O. O (1992) Comprehensive Certificate
Physics,Ibadan: University Press Pic.
Ike, E. E (2006) Essential Principles of Physics, Aba Enic Publishers
Ike, E. E (2005) Numerical Problems and Solutions in Physics, F = Ma Enic
Publishers, Aba
5.Ike, E. E. (2009) Introductory University Physics Enic Publishers, Jos
6.Abbott, A. F. Principle of Physics (Fifth Edition) Heinemann Educational
Publishere Halley Court, Jordan Education Limited.
7. Anyakoha M. W. (2010) New School Pyhsics for Senior Secondary Schools (Third Edition) Africana First Publishers Pic

“THE HOUSE MY FATHER BUILT”…A WRITER’S PORTRAIT OF CHARACTER TYPES IN NIGERIA

 "THE HOUSE MY FATHER BUILT"...A WRITER'S PORTRAIT OF CHARACTER TYPES IN NIGERIA

In his new book, ‘The House My Father Built’, Adewale Maja-Pearce reveals some factors limiting Nigeria’s social and economic growth, CHUX OHAI writes

Writer, essayist and literary critic, Adewale Maja-Pearce, has just published a memoir titled The House My Father Built, a sequel to In my Father’s Country: A Nigerian Journey, which was originally published in 1987.

Coming close to another general election, The House My Father Built highlights a personal struggle by Maja-Pearce to assert his ‘Nigerianness’, especially among a few individuals whose actions have given him an inroad, as he claims in an interview with our correspondent, into some “unwholesome characteristics” of the average Nigerian.

The author could not have chosen a more auspicious time to publish the book, which attempts to critically interrogate as well as provide an insight into the understanding of a variety of contemporary Nigerian character types and their impact on the social, economic and political development of the country.

He speaks of the central character in this true life drama, Prince, with a mixture of admiration and loathing.

In a way, the entire narrative seems to revolve around this person, whom the writer describes as a failed politician and free-loading thug. Yet Maja-Pearce attributes some positive qualities to him. “He was a very articulate person and educated. He was fluent in three or four Nigerian languages. He spoke Hausa, Yoruba and Edo. He understood how the world works,” he says.

Also claiming that he met this man just before the transition to civil rule programme initiated by the last military regime in the country ushered in the present democracy in 1999, the writer continues, “Prince was supposed to be working for a man, who was running for governor of Lagos in 1999. But, obviously, there was a back room deal whereby the man would step down for Senator Bola Tinubu and then get ‘settled’ for cooperating.

“The man had founded a political party, which he ran from a nondescript three-bedroom flat on this street. He had employed Prince to work for him. But all that the latter did was hang around the so-called office all day. He was not even getting paid by his boss. Somehow, we got along together. He was a nice fellow to have around in those days. He was intelligent and painstaking.”

Unfortunately, with time, Prince proved to be highly flawed and two times as unreliable as the corrupt policemen and judicial officers, as well as common criminals that collectively haunt the writer’s world.

Noting that Prince represented everything he disliked in Nigeria that was stalling the country’s progress at every turn, Maja-Pearce says, “For him, everything that went wrong was somebody else’s fault. Right from the beginning, he interested me as a political type. I am not a politician, but intellectually I like to follow politics. I like writing about politics and meeting these political types.

“He seemed to me to be an archetype who always wanted something for nothing; often felt that the world owed him a lot; stood on the fact that he was a man of a certain age and background and took it for granted that other people should work for him.

“Prince would take anything you gave him and then, give you nothing in return. He was irresponsible. I recall that he used to apply for the American lottery visa, not because he wanted to go to live in American. His motive was to win the lottery and sell it. He was a complete 419 fraudster.

“After a while, I realised that the reason why Nigeria is failing as a country is because his type are the ones at the helms of the affairs of government. They love too much power and do what they like; they are greedy and have no conscience. They like to oppress other people.”

Apart from Prince, other people inhabit this engaging allegory on the Nigerian psyche, such as Joke, an unrepentant dupe who took pleasure in ripping off the writer whenever she had the opportunity. He describes her as a female version of Prince.

There was the fraudulent and belligerent Alhaji, who once challenged Maja-Pearce’s claims to ownership of the same house that his father had willed him.

As the author recalls, Alhaji was actually a top ranking civil servant who managed to get himself dismissed for fraud.

Also, Ngozi – the first tenant to be forcefully evicted from the house – is, no doubt, a character study in impunity. She was living in the author’s house, with her brother – who was an Internet scam artist – and son without paying rent. When confronted with the fact that she had to quit, she resorted to open intimidation through her highly placed contacts in government. Eventually she lost out.

People like Prince, Joke, Ngozi and Alhaji, Maja-Pearce notes, populate the “downside of Nigeria” in sharp contrast to many others who are hard-working and law abiding, yet poorly remunerated.

He believes that the reason why nothing seems to work in Nigeria is because the people in power are stealing its resources and by implication, encouraging a lot of people, especially the youth, to take to crime in order to survive.

Maja-Pearce was a key player in this shocking narrative – one of the reasons why he deliberately set out to present it as a memoir instead of a novel. Although he admits to making use of an unbearably harsh law on electric meters, enacted by a certain military regime in the past, he has no regrets whatsoever. It was purely a matter of necessity.

“I simply wanted to tell the truth about what I did and to prove that I am the innocent actor in the entire episode,” he says.

Copyright PUNCH.

SPOKEN WORD ARTISTES TELL THEIR OWN STORIES

SPOKEN WORD ARTISTES TELL THEIR OWN STORIES

The participants and the organisers

The African Artists Foundation joins other organisations to project oral performance in Lagos, AKEEM LASISI writes

The African Artists’ Foundation, British Council and Waza Online Radio came together to give spoken word a lift last Friday.

At the event held at the British Council Garden, Ikoyi Lagos, several spoken word artistes mounted the stage and deepened the inroad that the sub-genre is steadily making into the Nigerian intellectual and entertainment sectors.

Apart from regular spoken word/slam/poetry performances held in the course of 2014, major feasts such as the Wole Soyinka at 80 programme and the Ake Art and Book Festival had featured talking poets in July and November.

But last Friday’s programme was particularly symbolic as it was an offshoot of a workshop earlier held at the AAF office also in Ikoyi.

For the Azu Nwagbogu-led foundation, which was just rounding off the LagosPhoto Festival and the National Art Competition, it was thus a way of stepping into a road less travelled.

Hosted by Titilope Sonuga, who stressed the importance of using spoken word to shape social consciousness, the event featured Efe Paul, Obi, Wana Udobang, Ndukwe Unuoha, Adesola Fakile and Shonuga herself, alongside emerging voices accommodated at the open mic level.

Representative of Waza Online Radio, Shaun Matsheza, urged Africans to develop ideas about how their society should move forward. According to him, it is important for the people to tell their own stories.

He said, “As AAF we need to tell our own story. We should form our own world in our own way,” he said.

He commended the AAF for powering the project and the British Council for providing the venue.

Music composer and producer, Femi, started the programme with numbers that included Smile and Adina (Gorgeou). This was followed by Elizabeth, whose performance centred on the need to ‘live in the spirit like a king/ and not in flesh like a slave’. For Olajide Akanni, however, the evening provided an opportunity to situate the beauty and doom that characterise the project Nigeria side-by-side.

Others such as Ivori and Vocal Slender also gave a promising account of themselves, respectively exploring the contradictions that surround religion and agony of insurgency.

Fakile prefaced his performance with an argument that followership is as important – and guilty – as leadership, based on the political problems plaguing Nigeria. His poems, People and In the Land sought to build on this theory.

Sonuga punctuated the show with some poems, including ‘Hide and Seek’, in which she responded to the horrors that insurgents have continued to unleash on the country. While Onuoha also told his own story in Here Lies the Revolution and When the Baby Cried, Obi gave one of the most moving experiences as she rendered Tell me it is not True, God is in my Bones, This is Home and New Nigeria.

Wana, a Lagos-based broadcaster, also presented Tales from the Dark Planet – preaching against sexual violence – and Love is, in which she created a special effect with the repetion of the clause.

The last major act of the night was Efe Paul, who has coordinated a number of spoken word events, including the Soyinka birthday performances. His Love is the Reason we are Here confronted the audience with various definitions of love while he waxed very political in ‘Justice has been Kidnapped in my Country’.

Interestingly, a symbolic epilogue, which though unplanned, was destined to happen at the event. This came from Olayinka, who missed out of the initial open mic session. Sonuga decided to compensate him by bringing him out after Paul, and this turned out to be a good decision as many really applauded the performance of Olayinka, who performed in Yoruba. The audience enjoyed his ‘Ise Loogun Ise’ (the traditional rhyme that says work is the antidote to poverty).

Copyright PUNCH.

PASS JAMB 2015/USE OF ENGLISH NOVEL…NOTES ON “THE LAST DAYS AT FORCADOS HIGH SCHOOL”

PASS JAMB 2015/USE OF ENGLISH NOVEL...NOTES ON "THE LAST DAYS AT FORCADOS HIGH SCHOOL"

ex-students,Mason College …the school made literature compulsory till SS2 for all students in this pic..including those going for Sciences….hopefully,the benefits of the measure will become clearer to them as they grow up in life…

1.PLOT/SUMMARY
(a)INTRODUCTION
The novel is about the Solade and Coker families whose children Jimi and Efua are the two major characters. It is also about other minor characters who happen to be their colleagues at Forcados High.
The novel hooks us immediately through obvious family and individual conflicts exhibited at home and at school leading to arrest of Wole Solade by the police, and mistaken suspensions of Jimi and Efua by school Management.
Before resolving these conflicts we are taken through a series of unfortunate events including a family tragedy, a paternal disappearance, revelations of immoral relationships, drug use and prostitution ,burglary, breakdown of school and personal friendships. The story climaxes at the point we got to know that the assumed lesbian relationship between Efua and one of the school’s NYSC female teachers is actually a farce.
Thereafter, all actions fall towards resolving most of the conflicts enumerated above. It is a matter of personal conjecture if the final resolution is a logical conclusion from the conflicts and story’s climax
(b)CHAPTER BY CHAPTER SUMMARY NOTES(20 CHAPTERS) ?

????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
2.NOTES ON CHARACTERIZATION?
3.NOTES ON SETTING?
4.NOTES ON POINT OF VIEW?
5.NOTES ON THEMES?

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PASS JAMB 2015/USE OF ENGLISH NOVEL...NOTES ON "THE LAST DAYS AT FORCADOS HIGH SCHOOL"

REGISTER YOUR SS3 STUDENT FOR SUMMER SCHOOL JAMB AND OTHER CLINICS AVAILABLE AT EDUPEDIA!

DOWNLOAD JAMB 2015 CBT EXAMINATION SYLLABUS…LITERATURE IN ENGLISH

The aim of the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) syllabus in Literature in English is to prepare the candidates for the Board’s examination. It is designed to test their achievement of the course objectives, which are to:

1. Stimulate and sustain their interest in Literature in English;

2. Create an awareness of the general principles and functions of language;

3. Appreciate literary works of all genres and across all cultures;

4. Apply the knowledge of Literature in English to the analysis of social, political and economic events in the society.

1. DRAMA

a. Types:

i. Tragedy

ii. Comedy

iii. Tragicomedy

iv. Melodrama

v. Farce

b. Dramatic Techniques

i. Characterisation

ii. Dialogue

iii. Flashback

iv. Mime

v. Costume

vi. Music/Dance

vii. Décor

viii. Acts/Scenes

ix. Soliloquy/aside etc.

c. Interpretation of the Prescribed Texts

i. Theme

ii. Plot

iii. Socio-political context

Candidates should be able to:

i. identify the various types of drama;

ii. analyse the contents of the various types of drama;

iii. compare and contrast the features of different dramatic types;

iv. demonstrate adequate knowledge of dramatic techniques used in each prescribed text;

v. differentiate between styles of selected playwrights;

vi. determine the theme of any prescribed text;

vii. identify the plot of the play;

viii. apply the lessons of the play to everyday living.

2. PROSE

a. Types:

i. Fiction

· Novel

· Novella

· Short story

ii. Non-fiction

· Biography

· Autobiography

· Memoir

b. Narrative Techniques/Devices:

i. Point of view

· Omniscent/Third Person

· First Person

ii. Setting

· Temporal

· Spatial/Geographical

iii. Characterisation

· Round characters

· Flat characters

iv. Language use

c. Textual Analysise

i. Theme

ii. Plot

iii. Socio-political context

3. POETRY

a. Types:

i. Sonnet

ii. Ode

iii. Lyrics

iv. Elegy

v. Ballad

vi. Panegyric

vii. Epic

viii. Blank Verse

b. Poetic Devices

i. Structure

ii. Imagery

iii. Rhyme/Rhythm

Candidates should be able to:

i. differentiate between types of prose;

ii. identify the category that each prescribed text belongs to;

iii. analyse the components of each type of prose;

iv. identify the narrative techniques used in each of the prescribed texts;

v. determine an author’s narrative style;

vi. distinguish between one type of character from another;

vii. determine the thematic pre-occupation of the author of the prescribed text;

viii. indicate the plot of the novel;

ix. relate the prescribed text to real life situations.

Candidates should be able to:

i. identify different types of poetry;

ii. compare and contrast the features of different poetic types:

iii. determine the devices used by various poets;

iv. show how poetic devices are used for aesthetic effect in each poem;

iv. Diction

v. Persona

c. Appreciation

i. Thematic preoccupation

ii. Socio-political relevance

4. GENERAL LITERARY PRINCIPLES

a. Literary terms:

foreshadowing, suspense, theatre, monoloque, dialoque, soliloquy, symbolism, protagonist, antagonist, figures of speech, satire, stream of consciousness etc,

in addition to those listed above under the different genres.

b. Relationship between literary terms and principles.

5. LITERARY APPRECIATION

Unseen passage/extracts from Drama, Prose and Poetry.

v. deduce the poet’s preoccupation from the poem;

vi. appraise poetry as an art with moral values;

vii. apply the lessons from the poem to real life situations.

Candidates should be able to:

i. identify literary terms in drama, prose and poetry;

ii. differentiate between literary terms and principles;

iii. use literary terms appropriately.

Candidates should be able to:

i. determine literary devices used in a given passage/extract;

ii. provide a meaningful inter-pretation of the given passage/extract;

iii. relate the extract to true life experiences.

A LIST OF SELECTED AFRICAN AND NON-AFRICAN PLAYS, NOVELS AND POEMS

Drama: African:

1. Femi Osofisan: Women of Owu

Non African:

1. William Shakespeare: The Tempest

Prose: African:

i. Asare Konadu: A woman in Her Prime

ii. Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie: Purple Hibiscus

Non African:

i. Ernest Hemingway: The Old Man and The Sea

Poetry: African:

i. Gbemisola Adeoti; Hard lines

ii. P.O.C. Umeh: Ambassadors of Poverty

iii. Shola Owonibi: Homeless not Hopeless

iv. Syl Cheney-Coker: Myopia

v. Jared Angira: Expelled

vi. Traditional: Serenade.

Non African:

i. John Donne: The Sun Rising

ii. Sir Walter Raleigh: The Soul’s Errand

iii. Langston Hughes: Negro Speaks of Rivers

iv. John Fletcher: Upon an Honest Man’s Fortune.

RECOMMENDED TEXTS

1. ANTHOLOGIES

Gbemisola, A. (2005). Naked Soles, Ibadan Kraft

Eruvbetine, A. E. et al (1991). Poetry for Secondary Schools, Lagos: Longman

Hayward, J. (ed.) (1968). The Penguin Book of English Verse, London Penguin

Johnson, R. name(s)? (eds.) (1996). New Poetry from Africa, Ibadan: UP Plc

Kermode, F. name(s)? (1964). Oxford Anthology of English Literature, Vol. II, London: OUP

Senanu, K. E. and Vincent, T. (eds.) (1993). A Selection of African Poetry, Lagos: Longman

Sonyinka, W. (ed.) (1987). Poems of Black Africa, Ibadan: Heinemann

Wendy Cope (1986). Making Cocoa for Kingsley Amis, London: Faber and Faber

2. CRITICAL TEXTS

Abrams, M. H. (1981). A Glossary of Literary Terms, (4th Edition) New York,

Holt Rinehalt and Winston Emeaba, O. E. (1982). A Dictionary of Literature, Aba: Inteks Press

Murphy, M. J. (1972). Understanding Unseen, An Introduction to English Poetry and English Novel for Overseas Students, George Allen and Unwin Ltd.

Nwachukwu-Agbada, J. O. J. (2011). Exam Focus: Literature in English, Ibadan: UP Plc. Wisdomline Pass at Once JAMB.

DOWNLOAD JAMB 2015 CBT EXAMINATION SYLLABUS…GOVERNMENT

DOWNLOAD JAMB 2015 CBT EXAMINATION SYLLABUS

do not become a misdirected and frustrated student!

The aim of the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) syllabus in Government is to prepare the candidates for the Board’s examination. It is designed to test their achievement of the objectives of the course in Government.

These objectives are to:

i. appreciate the meaning of government;

ii. analyse the framework and specify the institutions of government;

iii. explain the concept of citizenship and define the duties and obligations of a citizen;

iv. appreciate the process of political development;

v. evaluate the political development and problems of governance in Nigeria;
vi. assess the role of Nigeria as a member of the international community and the workings of international organizations.

1. Basic concepts in government

a. Power, Right, Legitimacy, Authority, Sovereignty:

b. Society, State, Nation, Nation-State;

c. Political Processes

Political Socialization, Political Participation, Political Culture.

2. Forms of Government:

Monarchy, Aristocracy, Oligarchy, Autocracy, Republic, Democracy- definitions, features, merits and demerits.

3. Arms of Government:

a. The Legislature – types, structure, functions, powers;

b. The Executive – types and functions, powers;

c. The Judiciary – functions, powers, components.

4. Structures of Governance:

Unitary, Federal, Confederal-features, reasons for adoption, merits and demerits.

Candidates should be able to:

i. identify the fundamental concepts in governance;

ii. analyse various political processes;

Candidates should be able to:

i. distinguish between different forms of government.

Candidates should be able to:

i. identify the duties and obligations of the various arms of government and their agencies;

ii. relate each arm to its functions.

Candidates should be able to:

i. compare the various political structures of governance.

5. Systems of Governance: Presidential, Parliamentary and Monarchical.

6. Political Ideologies:

Communalism, Feudalism, Capitalism, Socialism, Fascism, Communism

7. Constitution

Written, Unwritten, Rigid and Flexible.

8. Principles of Democratic Government: Ethics and Accountability in Public Office, Separation of Power/Checks and Balances, Individual and Collective Responsibility, Constitutionalism, Rule of Law.

9. Processes of Legislation:

Legislative Enactment – acts, edicts, delegated legislation, decrees.

10. Citizenship:

i. Meaning, types

ii. Citizenship rights;

iii. Duties and obligations of citizens.

11. The Electoral Process:

Franchise, Election, Electoral System, Electoral Commission.

12. Party Systems:

i. Definition, function and types

ii. Political parties – Definition, Organization, functions.

13. Pressure Groups:

Definition, types, functions and modes of operation.

14. Public Opinion:

Meaning, functions and measurement.

15. The Civil Service:

Definition, characteristics, functions, structure, control and problems.

Candidates should be able to:

i. distinguish between the different systems of governance.

Candidates should be able to:

i. differentiate between the major political ideologies;

ii. contrast modes of production,

Candidates should be able to:

i. compare the nature of constitutions

Candidates should be able to:

i. identify the principles of democratic government;

ii. determine the application of these principles;

Candidates should be able to:

i. analyse the processes involved in the making of laws.

Candidates should be able to:

i. differentiate between the various types of citizenship;

ii. specify the rights and responsibilities of a citizen.

Candidates should be able to:

i. analyse the various electoral processes.

Candidates should be able to:

i. distinguish between types of party system;

ii. assess the role of political parties

Candidates should be able to:

i. distinguish between pressure groups and political parties

Candidates should be able to:

i. assess the function of public opinion;

ii. compare methods of assessing public opinion.

Candidates should be able to:

i. analyse the significance of civil service in governance.

PART II POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

1. Pre – colonial Polities:

Sarauta, Emirate, Tiv, Igbo, Yoruba – structure/system of governance

2. Imperialist Penetration:

a. The British process of acquisition – trade, missionary activities, company rule, crown colony, protectorate;

b. The British colonial administrative policy – direct and indirect rule;

c. Impact of British colonial rule- economic, political, socio-cultural;

d. Comparison of British and French colonial administration.

3. Process of Decolonization

a. Nationalist Movements – meaning, emergence, goals, strategies, nationalist leaders – Herbert Macaulay, Nnamdi Azikiwe, Obafemi Awolowo, Ahmadu Bello and others; emergence of nationalist parties.

b. Influence of External factors;

c. Constitutional development – the Clifford (1922), Richards (1946), Macpherson (1951), Lyttelton (1954) and Independence (1960) Constitutions.

4. Post – Independence Constitutions 1963, 1979, 1989 and 1999 – characteristics and shortcomings

5. Institutions of Government in the Post

– Independence period;

The Legislature, the Executive and the Judiciary – structure, functions and workings

6. Public Commissions Established by the 1979 and Subsequent Constitutions: The Civil Service Commission, the Public Complaints Commission, Electoral Commissions and others – objectives and functions.

Candidates should be able to:

i. compare pre-colonial systems of governance

Candidates should be able to:

i. trace the processes of imperialist penetration;

ii. assess the impact of British policies;

iii. distinguish between British and French colonial practices.

Candidates should be able to:

i. evaluate the process of decolonization;

ii. assess the roles of nationalist leaders and parties;

iii. assess the impact of external forces and ideas (Pan-Africanism, Back–to–Africa Movements, etc),

iv. compare the various constitutional developments.

Candidates should be able to:

i. assess the workings of the various constitutions.

Candidates should be able to:

i. evaluate the operations of the arms of government and their agencies, e.g the civil service, armed forces, police, courts and others.

Candidates should be able to:

i. evaluate the operations of public commissioners;

ii. assess the problems of, and constraints on

iii. the public commissions.

7. Political Parties in the Post- Independence Period:

Political parties, party politics – First, Second, Third and Fourth Republics.

8. The Structure and Workings of Nigerian Federalism:

a. Rationale for a Federal System

b. Tiers of government and their relationship

c. Creation of States – 1963, 1967, 1976, 1987, 1991, 1996;

d. Problems of Nigerian Federalism – census, revenue allocation, conflicts etc. solutions e.g. Federal character, etc.

9. Public Corporations and Parastatals

a. Definition, types, purpose and functions

b. Finance, control and problems;

c. Deregulation, privatization – objectives, features, merits and demerits;

d. Comparison between public corporations and parastatals.

10. Local Government:

a. Local government administration prior to 1976;

b. Features of local government reforms (1976, 1989) – structure, functions, finance and inter-governmental relations;

c. Traditional rulers and local governments.

11. The Military in Nigerian Politics

a. factors that led to military intervention;

b. structure of military regimes;

c. impact of military rule – political, e.g creation etc. economic, e.g SAP, etc.

d. processes of military disengagement.

Candidates should be able to:

i. contrast political process in the republics.

Candidates should be able to:

i. examine the workings of Nigerian federalism;

ii. identify its problems;

iii. evaluate the corrective measure adopted.

Candidates should be able to:

i. examine the operations of public corporations and parastatals;

ii. identify the processes involved in privatization and commercialization;

iii. assess the economic importance of privatization and commercialization.

Candidates should be able to:

i. trace the evolution and structure of local government;

ii. identify the major problems faced by local governments.

Candidates should be able to:

i. evaluate the reasons given for military intervention;

ii. asses the achievements of military rule;

iii. determine the conditions that necessitated withdrawal from governance.

PART III: NIGERIA AND THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY

1. Foreign Policy:

a. Definition, purpose, determining factors;

b. Nigerian foreign policy;

i. Relations with major powers;

ii. Relations with developing countries.

2. Relations with African Countries:

a. Africa as “centre piece” – guiding principles, implementation and implications;

b. NEPAD – origin, objectives and implications.

3. Nigeria in International Organizations

a. The United Nations;

b. The Commonwealth;

c. The Organization of African Unity;

d. The African Union;

e. The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS);

f. The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).

PART IV: INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS:

1. International Organizations:

a. ECOWAS;

b. OAU, AU;

c. Commonwealth;

d. UNO;

e. OPEC;

- Origin, objectives, structure, functions, achievements, problems and prospects of these organizations.

Candidates should be able to:

i. identify the major objectives of Nigerian foreign policy;

ii. analyse Nigeria’s aligned posture;

Candidates should be able to:

i. evaluate the role of Nigeria in continental affairs;

ii. assess the role of NEPAD in developing Africa.

Candidates should be able to:

i. analyse the dynamics of Nigeria’s involvement in international organizations;

ii. assess their contribution to the development of Nigeria.

Candidates should be able to:

i. identify international organizations;

ii. assess the role of these organizations in world affairs.

Adigwe, F (1985). Essentials of Government for West Africa, Ibadan: University Press Plc.

Anifowose, R and Enemuo, F. C (eds)(1999). Elements of Politics, Lagos; Malthouse Press Limited.

Appadorai, A. (1978). The Substance of Politics, London: Oxford University Press. Ball, A. R. (1983). Modern Politics and Government, London: macmillan.

Ikein, A. A. (1990). The Impact of Oil on a Developing Country, The Case of Nigeria, Ibadan; Evans.

Ofoegbu, R. (1977). Government for the Certificate Year, London:

George Allen and Unwin. Ojiako, J. O. (1981). Nigeria Yesterday, Today and ? Onitsha: Africana Educational Publishers (Nig.) Ltd.

Olawale, J. B (1987). New Topics on Ordinary Level Government, Ilesha: Jola Publishing. Omolewa, M. (1991). A Certificate History of Nigeria, Ibadan: Longman.

Oyediran, O. Nwosu, H., Takaya, B., Anifowoshe, R., Femi, B., Godwill, O. and Adigun, A. (1990). Government for Senior Secondary Schools, Books 1, 2 and 3, Ibadan: Longman.

Oyeneye, I., Onyenwenu, M. and Olusunde, B. E. (2000). Round-Up Government for Senior Secondary School Certifcate Examination: A complete Guide, Ibadan: Longman.

Oyovbaire, S., Oguna, A. E. C., Amucheazi, E. C., Coker, H. o. and Oshuntuyi, O. (2001).

Countdown to Senior Secondary Certifcate Examination: Government, Ibadan: Evans.

DOWNLOAD JAMB 2015 CBT EXAMINATION SYLLABUS…GEOGRAPHY

The aim of the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) syllabus in Geography is to prepare the candidates for the Board’s examination. It is designed to test their achievement of the course objectives, which are to:

1. handle and interpret topographical maps, statistical data and diagrams and basic field survey;

2. demonstrate knowledge of man’s physical and human environment and how man lives and earns a living on earth surface with special reference to Nigeria and Africa;

3. show understanding of the interrelationship between man and his environment;

4. apply geographical concepts, skills and principles to solving problems.

I. PRACTICAL GEOGRAPHY

a. Scale and measurement distances, areas reduction and enlargement, directions, bearings and gradients with reference to topographical maps.

b. Map reading and interpretation; drawing of cross profiles, recognition of intervisibility, recognition and description of physical and human features and relationship as depicted on topographical maps.

c. Interpretation of statistical data; maps and diagrams

d. Elementary Surveying chain and prismatic, open and close traverse, procedure, problems, advantages and disadvantages.

Candidates should be able to:

ai apply the different types of scale to distances and area measurement;

ii apply the knowledge of scale to gradients, map reduction and enlargement;

bi illustrate the relief of an area through profile drawing;

ii interpret physical and human features from topographical maps.

ci Compute quantitative information from statistical data, diagrams and maps,

ii. interpret statistical data, diagrams and maps. di. analyse the principle and procedure of each

technique;

ii. compare the advantages of the two techniques.

II. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY

a. The earth as a planet

i. The earth in the solar system, rotation and revolution;

ii. The shape and size of the earth

iii. Latitudes and distances, longitudes and time;

iv. The structure of the earth (internal and external).

b. Rocks

i Types and characteristics ii Modes of formation

iii Uses of rocks

c Landforms

i processes; earth movements (faulting, folding, earthquakes, volcanicity), erosion, transportation and deposition.

ii Modifying agents; water (surface and Underground) wind and sea waves;

iii Types of landforms associated with the Processes and agents specified above (Karst topography, plains fold mountains, faulted landforms, volcanic mountains, deltas, river terraces, barchans seifs and zeugens).

d. Water Bodies

i. Oceans and seas (world distribution, salinity and uses);

Candidates should be able to:

ai identify the relative positions of the planets in the solar system;

ii relate the effects of the rotation to the revolution of the earth;

iii provide proof for the shape and size of the earth;

iv differentiate between latitude and longitude;

v relate latitude to calculation of distance; vi relate longitude to calculation of time; vii compare the internal and external

components of the earth.

bi differentiate between major types of rocks and their Characteristics;

ii analyse the processes of formation and the resultant features;

iii indicate the uses of rocks.

ci distinguish between the internal and the external processes of landforms development;

ii identify the agents of denudation;

iii associate landforms with each process and agent.

di locate oceans and seas on the globe;

ii examine the characteristics and uses of Ocean and seas;

ii Ocean currents – types, distribution, causes and effects;

iii Lakes – types, distribution and uses.

e Weather and Climate

i Concept of weather and climate ii Elements of weather and climate

iii Factors controlling weather and climate (pressure, air, mass, altitude, continentality and winds);

iv Classification of climate (Greek and Koppen).

v Major climate types (Koppen), their Characteristics and distribution.

vi Measuring and recording weather parameters and instruments used.

f Vegetation

i Factors controlling growth of plants ii The concept of vegetation e.g. plant

communities and succession

iii Major types of vegetation, their characteristics and distribution,

iv Impact of human activities on vegetation.

g Soils

i. Definition and properties

ii. Factors and processes of formation

iii. Soil profiles

iv. Major tropical types, their characteristics, distribution and uses;

iii classify the types of ocean currents; iv account for the distribution of ocean

currents;

v evaluate the causes and effects of ocean currents;

vi identify the types and location of lakes;

vii indicate the characteristics and uses of lakes

ei differentiate between weather and climate; ii differentiate between the elements of

weather and climate;

iii isolate the factors controlling weather and climate;

iv compare Koppen’s and Greek’s classifications

v identify the major types of climate according to Koppen;

vii relate the weather instruments to their uses.

fi trace the factors controlling the growth of plants;

ii analyse the process of vegetation development;

iii identify the types, their characteristics and distribution;

iv assess the impact of human activities on vegetation;

gi classify soils and their

ii. properties;

ii. isolate the factors of formation;

iii. differentiate between the different types of soil horizons and their characteristics;

v. Impact of human activities on soils.

h Environmental Resources;

i Types of resources (atmospheric, land, soil, Vegetation and minerals);

ii The concept of renewable and non- renewable resources;

I Environmental interaction: i Land ecosystem

i Environmental balance and human interaction

j Environmental: hazards

i. Natural hazards (droughts, earth-quakes, volcanic eruptions, flooding)

ii. Man-induced (soil erosion, Deforestation, pollution, flooding Desertification)

iii. Effects, prevention and control of hazards.

III. HUMAN GEOGRAPHY

a. Population

i. World population with particular reference to the Amazon Basin, N.E.

iv. compare the major tropical soil types and uses of soils;

v. account for the distribution and uses of soils;

vi. assess the impact of human activities on soils.

hi. interpret the concept of environmental resources;

ii. relate environmental resources to their uses;

iii. differentiate between the concepts of renewable and non-renewable resources.

Ii. identify the components of land ecosystem;

ii. establish the interrelationship within the ecosystem;

iii. interpret the concept of environmental balance;

iv. analyse the effects of human activities on land ecosystem.

ji identify the natural hazards and their causes

ii. relate the human-induced hazards to their causes;

iii. locate the major areas where they are common and their effects;

iv. recommend possible methods of prevention and control.

Candidates should be able to:

ai. identify the characteristics of population (growth rates and structure);

ii. determine the factors and the patterns of

U.S.A., India, Japan and the West Coast of Southern African.

ii. Characteristics – birth and death rates, ages/sex structure.

iii. Factors and patterns of population distribution;

iv . Factors and problems of population growth;

b. Settlement with particular reference to Western Europe, Middle East and West Africa;

i. Types and patterns: Rural and Urban, Dispersed, nucleated and linear;

ii. Rural settlement: classification, factors of growth and functions;

iii. Urban settlement – classification, factors for growth and functions.

iv. Problems of urban centres

v. Interrelationship between rural and urban settlements.

c. Selected economic activities

i. Types of economic activities: primary, secondary and tertiary;

ii. Manufacturing industries, types, locational factors, distribution and socio- economic importance and problems of

industrialization in tropical Africa.

iii. Transportation and Communication types, roles in economic development and communication in tropical Africa.

iv. World trade-factors and pattern of world trade, major commodities (origin, routes and destinations).

population distribution;

iii. identify the factors and problems of population growth;

iv. relate the types of migration to their causes and effects;

v. account for the ways population constitute a resource.

bi differentiate between types of Settlements;

ii. classify the patterns and functions of rural settlements;

iii. classify the patterns and functions of urban settlement;

iv. establish the interrelationship between rural and urban settlements;

ci. identify the types of economic activities;

ii. differentiate between the types of economic activities;

iii. compare the types of manufacturing industries;

iv. identify the factors of industrial location;

iii. examine the socio-economic importance of manufacturing industries;

iv. give reasons for the problems of industrialization in tropical Africa;

v. differentiate between the types and means of transportation and communication;

vi. assess the economic importance of

IV. REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY

A. Nigeria

a Broad outline

i. Location, position, size, political division

(states) and peoples;

ii Physical settling: geology, relief, landform,

climate and drainage, vegetation and soils;

iii Population: size, distribution, migration, (types, problems and effects);

iv Natural Resources: types (minerals, soils,

Water, vegetation etc) distribution, uses

and

Conservation;

v. Agricultural Systems: the major crops produced, problems of agricultural development in Nigeria.

vi. Manufacturing Industries: factors of location, types of products, marketing and problems associated with manufacturing;

vii. Transportation and trade: modes of transportation and their relative advantages and disadvantages, regional and international trade.

transport and;

vii. give reasons for the problems of transportation in tropical Africa;

viii. relate the factors to the pattern of world trade.

ix. classify the major commodities of trade in terms of their origins, routes and destination.

Candidates should be able to:

Ai describe the location, size and political Divisions of Nigeria.

ii. identify the ethnic groups and their distributions;

iii. relate the components of physical settings to their effects on human activities;

iv. account for the pattern of population distribution;

v. examine the types of migration, their problems and effects;

vi. identify the types of natural resources and their distribution;

vii. indicate their uses and conservation;

viii. compare the farming systems practiced in Nigeria;

ix. identify the crops produced and the problems encountered;

x. identify the types and location of the major manufacturing industries;

xi. determine the factors of industrial location and the problems associated with the industries;

xii. establish the relationship between transport and trade;

xiii. relate the modes of transportation to their relative advantages and

b. Geographical Regions of Nigeria i Eastern Highlands;

ii Eastern Scarpland;

iii Northern Central Highland iv Western Highlands;

v Sokoto Plains;

vi. Niger-Benue trough;

vii. Cross River Basin;

viii Southern Coastland each region analysed under the following sub- headings: physical setting (relief, drainage etc) people, population and settlements, modes of exploitation of natural resources, transportation and problems of development.

B. The Rest of Africa:

a Africa on broad outline;

i Location, size, position, political settings (relief, drainage, climate type, Vegetation type etc).

ii. Distribution of major minerals

b Selected Topics

i Lumbering in equatorial Africa with particular reference to Cote d’voire (Ivory Coast) and the Democratic Republic of Congo.

ii Irrigation Agriculture in the Nile and Niger Basin;

disadvantages;

xiv. classify the major commodities of regional and international trade;

bi. Identify each geographical region and its distinctive features;

ii. identify the people of each region and the settlement pattern;

iii. account for the mode of resource exploitation in each region;

iv. examine the modes and problems of transportation in each region;

v. give reasons for the problem of development in each region;

vi. Suggest solutions.

ai. Identify the location, size and political Division of Africa;

ii. relate the components of the physical setting to the effect on human

activities;

iii describe the distribution of major minerals. bi analyse the factors that favour the

Development of lumbering in the identified areas;

ii. examine the methods and problem lumbering;

iii. assess the economic importance of lumbering;

iv. account for the reason for irrigation in the area;

iii Plantation Agriculture in West and East Africa

iv Fruit Farming in the Mediterranean Regions of Africa.

v Mineral Exploitation

- Gold mining in South Africa

- Copper mining in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

- Crude oil production in Algeria and Libya

vi Population Distribution in West Africa

vii International Economic Cooperation in West Africa, e.g. ECOWAS

v. compare the methods and major crops produced;

vi. identify the problems associated with irrigation in the area;

vii account for plantation agriculture and its requirements;

viii. relate the methods of management to the crops produced;

ix assess the economic importance of plantation agriculture;

x identify the conditions that favour fruit farming in the area;

xi relate the major areas of fruit farming to types of fruits produced;

xii assess the economic importance and problems associated with fruit farming in the area;

xiii proffer solutions to the problems;

xiv identify the area of production and the method of mining each mineral in the specified country;

xv relate the economic importance of the mineral to the region;

xvi determine the problems of associated with the exploitation of the mineral in each country;

xvii account for the pattern of population distribution in West Africa;

xviii indicate the factors influencing the pattern of distribution;

xix identify the member countries; xx examine the objectives for which

ECOWAS was established;

xxi evaluate the prospect and problems of the organization

Adeleke, B.O. and Leong, G.C. (1999). Certificate Physical and Human Geography (West African Edition), Ibadan: Oxford.

Bradshaw, M. name(s)? (2004). Contemporary World Regional Geography, New York: McGraw Hill

Bunet, R.B and Okunrotifa, P.O. (1999). General Geography in Diagrams for West Africa, China: Longman. Collins New Secondary Atlas, Macmillan

Fellman, D. name(s)? (2005). Introduction to Geography (Seventh Edition) New York: McGraw Hill

Getis, A. name(s)? (2004). Introduction to Geography (Ninth Edition) New York: McGraw Hill Iloeje, N. P (1999). A New Geography of West Africa, Hong Kong: Longman

Iloeje, N.P (1982). A New Geography of Nigeria (New Education), Hong Kong: London Nimaku, D.A. (2000). Map Reading of West Africa, Essex: Longman.

Okunrotifa, P.O. and Michael S. (2000). A Regional Geography of Africa (New Edition), Essex: London. Udo, R.K (1970). Geographical Regions of Nigeria, London: Longman.

Waugh, D. (1995). Geography an Integrated Approach (Second Edition), China: Nelson Wisdomline Pass at Once JAMB.

DOWNLOAD JAMB 2015 CBT EXAMINATION SYLLABUS…USE OF ENGLISH…WE SHALL SUPPLY DETAILED NOTES SOON ON “THE LAST DAYS AT FORCADOS HIGH SCHOOL” BY A.H. MOHAMMED

The aim of the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) syllabus in Use of English is to prepare the candidates for the Board’s examination. It is designed to test their achievement of the course objectives, which are to:

(1) communicate effectively in both written and spoken English;

(2) have a sound linguistic basis for learning at the tertiary level. The syllabus consists of two sections:

I. Comprehension/Summary

II. Lexis, Structure and Oral Forms

1. Comprehension/Summary

(a) description

(b) narration

(c) exposition

(d) argumentation/persuasion

(i) Each of the four passages to be set (one will be a cloze test) should reflect various disciplines and be about 400 words long.

(ii) Questions on passages will test the; following:

The general novel to read this year is titled; “The Last Days at Forcados High School” by A.H. Mohammed will test the following:

(a) Comprehension of the whole or part of each passage.

(b) Comprehension of words, phrases, clauses, sentences, figures of speech and idioms as used in the passages.

(c) Coherence and logical reasoning (deductions, inferences, etc)

(d) Synthesis of ideas from the passages.

Candidates should be able to:

i. identify main points in passages;

ii. determine implied meaning;

iii. identify the grammatical functions of words, phrases and clauses and figurative /idiomatic expression;

iv. deduce or infer the writer’s opinion, mood, attitude to the subject matter, etc.

NOTE:

By synthesis of ideas is meant the art of combining distinct or separate pieces of information to form a complex whole, that is, the ability to make generalizations from specific ideas mentioned in the passages. Such generalizations involve identifying the mood or tone of the writer, his attitude to the subject matter, his point of view, etc. In this regard, synthesis is a higher-level skill than summary.

2. Lexis, Structural and Oral Forms

2.1 Lexis and Structure

(a) synonyms

(b) antonyms

(c) homonyms

(d) clause and sentence patterns

(e) word classes and their functions

(f) mood, tense, aspect, number, agreement/concord, degree (positive, comparative and superlative) and question tags

(g) punctuation and spelling

(h) ordinary usage (words in their denotative or dictionary sense), figurative usage (expressions used in ways other than literal) and idiomatic usage (expressions whose meanings cannot be determined through a mere combination of individual words) are to be tested.

NOTE:

Idioms to be tested will be those expressed in standard British English (i.e those with universal acceptability)

2.2 Oral Forms

(a) Vowels (monophthongs and diphthongs

(b) Consonants (including clusters)

(c) Rhymes (homophones)

(d) Stress (word, sentence and emphatic)

(e) Intonation

NOTE:

Sentence stress should not be mistaken for emphatic or contrastive stress. It involves the placement of normal stress on content words (nouns, main verbs, adjectives and adverbs) in an utterance. Here, no emphasis or contrast is intended. For example, the words ‘see’ and ‘soon’ would normally be stressed in the sentence, I’ll see you soon’.

Candidates should be able to:

i. use words and expressions in their ordinary, figurative and idiomatic contexts;

ii. determine similar and opposite meanings;

iii. differentiate between correct and incorrect punctuation and spelling;

iv. identify various grammatical pattern in use;

v. interpret information conveyed in sentences.

Candidates should be able to:

i. distinguish correct from incorrect vowels;

ii. differentiate correct from incorrect consonants;

iii. identify silent letters, vowel length; consonant clusters, etc.

iv. determine appropriate uses of stress in words (monosyllabic, disyllabic and polysyllabie) and in sentences (emphatic/contrastive);

v. detect partial and complete rhymes.

SECTION A: Comprehension/Summary

(a) 3 comprehension passages (15 questions in all, 3 marks each) = 45 marks

(b) I cloze passage (10 questions in all, 2 marks each) = 20 marks

SECTION B: Lexis, Structure and Oral Forms

(a) Sentence interpretation (10 questions in all, 2 marks each) = 20 marks

(b) Antonyms (opposite in meaning -15 questions in all, 1 mark each) = 15 marks

(c) Synonyms (same in meaning – 15 questions in all, 1 mark each) = 15 marks

(d) Sentence completion (filling in the gaps – 20 questions in all, 1 mark each) = 20 marks

(e) Oral forms (15 questions in all, 1 mark each) = 15 marks Total: 100 questions = 150 marks

Bamgbose, A. (2002). English Lexis and Structure for Senior Secondary Schools and colleges (Revised Edition), Ibadan: Heinemann

Banjo, A. name(s)? (2004). New Oxford Secondary English Course Book Six for Senior Secondary Schools, Ibadan: UP Plc.

Banjo, A. Ayodele, S. and Ndahi, K. S. (1997). Exam Focus: English for WASSCE and SSCE, Ibadan UP Plc

Caesar, O. J. (2003). Essential Oral English for Schools and Colleges, Lagos: Tonad Publishers Limited

Egbe, D. I (1996). Mastering English Usage and Communication Skills, Lagos: Tisons

Elugbe, B. (2000). Oral English for Schools and Colleges, Ibadan: Heinemann

Grant, N. J. H, Nnamonu, S. Jowitt, D. (1998). Senior English Project 3, (New Edition) Harlow: Longman

Idowu, O. O, Sogbeson, T. S, Adofo, A. K. Burgess, D. F and Burgess, L. J. (1998). Round-up English: A Complete Guide, Lagos: Longman

Idris, U. (2001). Oral English at Your Fingertips for Schools and Colleges, Lagos, M. Youngbrain Publishers

Igwe, S. O. Atoye, R. O. and Olayiwola, B. A. (2005). JAMB Success: English Language for UME, PCE, Ibadan: UP Plc

Nnamonu, S. and Jowitt, D. (1987) .Use of English: JAMB Practice Tests, Lagos: Longman.

Nnamonu, S. and Jowitt, D. (1989). Common Errors in English, Lagos: Longman

Obinna, M. F. (2001). University Matriculation Use of English,(Fourth Edition) Port Harcourt: Sunray Books Limited

Ogunsanwo, O. Duruaku, A. B.C, Ezechukwu, J and Nwachukwu, U. I (2005). Countdown English Language, (Revised Edition), Ibadan: Evans

Olatoye, S. (2006). The Silent Teacher, Ado-Ekiti: Segun and Sons Enterprises

Oluikpe, B. O. A, nnaemeka, B. A, Obah, T. Y, Otagburuagu, E. J. Onuigbo, S. and Ogbonna, E. A. (1998).Intensive English for Senior Secondary School 3, Onitsha: Africana – FIRST Publisher.

Tomori, S. H. O (2000). Objective Tests for School Certificate english: Practice in Lexis, Structure and idiom (Reprinted Edition), Ibadan: Heinemann

Ukwuegbu, C, Okoro, O., Idris, A. U., Okebukola, F. O. and Owokade, C. O. (2002). Catch-up English for SSCE/UME, Ibadan: Heinemann

Wisdomline Pass at Once JAMB.

DOWNLOAD JAMB 2015 CBT EXAMINATION SYLLABUS…ECONOMICS

DOWNLOAD JAMB 2015 CBT EXAMINATION SYLLABUS…ECONOMICS

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The aim of the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) syllabus in Economics is to prepare the candidates for the Board’s examination. It is designed to test their achievement of the course objectives, which are to:

1. demonstrate sufficient knowledge and understanding of the basic concepts, tolls and their general applications to economic analysis;

2. identify and explain the basic structure, operations and roles of the various economics units and institutions (national and international);

3. describe major economic activities – production, distribution and consumption;

4. identify and appraise the basic economic problems of society;

5. develop the competence to proffer solutions to economic problems.

1. Economics as a science

a. Basic Concepts:

Wants, Scarcity, choice, opportunity cost, Rationality, production, distribution, consumption etc

b. Economic problems of:

what, how and for whom to produce

2. Economic Systems

a. Types: free enterprise, centrally planned and mixed economies

b. Solutions to economic problems under different systems

c. Contemporary issues in economic systems (e.g. economic reforms, deregulation etc)

Candidates should be able to:

(i) compare various concepts in economics and their applications;

(ii) interpret graphs/schedules in relation to the concepts;

(iii) identify economic problems;

(iv) proffer solutions to economic problems

Candidates should be able to:

(i) compare the various economic systems;

(ii) apply the knowledge of economic systems to contemporary issues in Nigeria;

(iii) proffer solutions to economic problems in different economic systems.

3. Methods of Economic Analysis

a. Scientific Approach:

i. inductive and deductive methods

ii. positive and normative reasoning

b. Basic Tools

i. tables, charts and graphs

ii. measures of central tendency: mean, median and mode, and their applications.

iii. measures of dispersion; variance, standard deviation, range and their applications;

iv. merits and demerits of the tools.

4. The Theory of Demand

a. i. meaning and determinants of demand

ii. demand schedules and curves

iii. the distinction between change in quantity demanded and change in demand.

b. Types of demand:

Composite, derived, competitive etc

c. Elasticity of demand:

determinants, measurements, nature and applications (e.g. revenue).

d. Effects of changes in the determinants (price, income and cross elasticities).

5. The Theory of Consumer Behaviour

a. Basic Concepts:

i. utility (cardinal, ordinal and marginal utilities)

ii. value in use and value in exchange

iii. indifference curve and budget line.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) distinguish between the various forms of reasoning;

(ii) apply these forms of reasoning to real life situations;

(iii) use the tools to interpret economic data;

(iv) analyse economic data using the tools;

(v) assess the merits and demerits of the tools.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) identify the factors determining demand;

(ii) interpret demand curves from demand schedules;

(iii) differentiate between change in quantity demanded and in demand;

(iv) compare the various types of demand and their interrelationships;

(v) relate the determinants to the nature of elasticity;

(vi) compute elasticities;

(vii) interpret elasticity coefficients in relation to real life situations.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) appraise the various utility concepts;

(ii) apply the law of demand using the marginal utility analysis;

(iii) use indifference curve and marginal analyses to determine consumer equilibrium;

b. Diminishing marginal utility and the law of demand.

c. Consumer equilibrium using the indifference curve and marginal analyses.

d. Effects of shift in the budget line and the indifference curve.

e. Consumer surplus and its applications.

6. The Theory of Supply

a. i. Meaning and determinants of supply

ii. Supply schedules and supply curves

iii. the distinction between change in quantity supplied and change in supply

b. Types of Supply: Joint/complementary, competitive and composite

c. Elasticity of Supply:

determinants, measurements, nature and applications

7. The Theory of Price Determination

a. The concepts of market and price

b. Functions of the price system

c. i. Price determination under a free market

ii. Price legislation and its effects

d. The effects of changes in supply and demand on equilibrium price and quantity

(iv) associate the income and substitution effects;

(v) apply consumer surplus to real life situations.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) identify the factors determining supply;

(ii) interpret supply curves from supply schedules;

(iii) differentiate between change in quantity supplied and change in supply;

(iv) compare the various types of supply and their interrelationships;

(v) relate the determinants to the nature of elasticity;

(vi) compute elasticity coefficients;

(vii) interpret the coefficients in relation to real live situations.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) express the concepts of market and price;

(ii) examine the functions of the price system;

(iii) evaluate the effects of government interference with the price system;

(iv) differentiate between minimum and maximum price legislation;

(v) interpret the effects of changes in supply and demand on equilibrium price and quantity.

8. The Theory of Production

a. Concepts of production and their interrelationships (TP, AP, MP and the law of variable proportion).

b. Scale of Production:

Internal and external economies of scale and their implications.

c. Production functions and returns to scale

d. Producers’ equilibrium isoquant-isocost and marginal analyses.

9. Theory of Costs

a. The concepts of cost:

Fixed, Variable Average and Marginal

b. Accountants’ and Economists’ notions of cost

c. Short-run and long-run costs

d. The marginal cost and the supply curve of firm.

10. Market Structure

a. Perfectly competitive market:

i. Assumptions and characteristics;

ii. Short-run and long-run equilibrium of a perfect competitor;

b. Imperfect Market:

i. Pure monopoly, discriminatory monopoly and monopolistic competition.

ii. Short-run and long-run equilibrium positions.

c. Break-even/shut-down analysis in the various markets.

11. National Income

a. Concepts: GNP, GDP, NI etc

b. National Income measurements and their problems

Candidates should be able to:

(i) relate TP, AP and MP with the law of variable proportion;

(ii) compare internal and external economies of scale in production and their effects;

(iii) identify the types of production functions

(iv) compare the different types of returns to the scale and their implications;

(v) determine the firm’s equilibrium position using the isoquant-isocost and marginal analyses.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) interpret the various cost concepts

(ii) differentiate between accountants’ and economists’ notions of costs;

(iii) interpret the short-run and long-run costs curves;

(iv) establish the relationship between marginal cost and supply curve.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) analyse the assumptions and characteristics of a perfectly competitive market;

(ii) differentiate between short-run and long- run equilibrium of a perfectly competitive firm;

(iii) analyse the assumptions and characteristics of imperfect markets;

(iv) differentiate between the short-run and long-run equilibria of imperfectly competitive firms;

(v) establish the conditions for the break- even/shut down of firms.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) identify the major concepts in national income;

(ii) compare the different ways of measuring national income;

c. Uses of national incomes estimates

d. The circular flow of income (three- sector model)

e. The multiplier concept.

f. Elementary theory of income determination and equilibrium national income.

12. Money and Inflation

a. Types and functions of money

b. Demand for money and the supply of money

c. Quantity Theory of money (Fisher equation)

d. Inflation: Types, measurements, effects and control

13. Banking

a. Types and functions of banks

b. The creation of money

c. Challenges facing the banking industry in Nigeria (reforms, consolidation)

d. The role of banks in economic development

e. Monetary policy and its instruments.

14. Public Finance

a. Meaning and objectives

b. Sources of government revenue (taxes royalties, etc)

c. Principles of taxation

d. The effects of public expenditure

e. Government budget and public debts

f. Revenue allocation and resource control in Nigeria

15. Economic Growth and Development

a. Meaning and scope

b. Indicators of growth and development

c. Factors affecting growth and

(iii) examine their problems;

(iv) assess the uses and limitations of national income estimates;

(v) interpret the circular flow of income using the three-sector model;

(vi) calculate the multipliers;

(vii) evaluate their effects on equilibrium national income.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) differentiate between the types and functions of money;

(ii) determine the factors affecting the demand for and the supply of money;

(iii) identify the components in the quantity theory of money;

(iv) examine the causes and effects of inflation;

(v) calculate the consumer price index;

(vi) interpret the consumer price index;

(vii) examine ways of controlling inflation. Candidates should be able to:

(i) compare the types of banks and their functions;

(ii) trace the money-creation process and factors affecting it;

(iii) appraise the challenges facing the banking industry;

(iv) examine the role of banks in economic development;

(v) examine the various monetary policy instruments and their effects.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) identify the objectives of public finance;

(ii) compare the various sources of government revenue;

(iii) analyse the principles of taxation;

(iv) examine the effects of public expenditure on the economy;

(v) examine the types and effects of budgets;

(vi) highlights the criteria for revenue allocation in Nigeria and their impact.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) distinguish between economic growth and development;

(ii) highlight the indicators of growth and

development

d. Problems of development in Nigeria

e. Developing planning in Nigeria.

16. Agriculture in Nigeria

a. The role of agriculture in economic development;

b. Characteristics and problems;

c. Effects of agricultural policies;

d. Instability in agricultural income (causes, effects and solutions)

17. Industry and Industrialization

a. Concepts and effects of location and localization of industry in Nigeria;

b. Problems of Industrialization strategies (e.g. export promotion, import substitution etc)

c. SMEs and economic development in Nigeria

18. Petroleum and the Nigerian Economy

a. Development of the petroleum industry in Nigeria;

b. Contributions of petroleum to the Nigerian economy;

c. Linkage effects;

d. Upstream/downstream activities.

19. Business Organizations

a. Private enterprises (e.g. sole- proprietorship,

partnership, limited liability companies and cooperative societies)

b. Problems of private enterprises;

c. Public enterprises;

development;

(iii) identify the factors affecting growth and development;

(iv) assess the problems of development in Nigeria;

(v) examine the role of planning in development;

Candidates should be able to:

(i) identify the characteristics and problems of agriculture;

(ii) assess the role of agriculture in economic development;

(iii) appraise some agricultural policies;

(iv) evaluate the causes and effects of instability in agricultural income.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) differentiate between location and localization of industry;

(ii) identify the factors influencing the location and localization of industry;

(iii) examine the problems of industrialization;

(iv) appraise some industrialization strategies;

(v) examine the role of industry in economic development.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) trace the development of the petroleum industry in Nigeria;

(ii) assess the contribution of petroleum to the Nigerian economy;

(iii) establish the linkages between the petroleum and other sectors;

(iv) analyse the environmental effects of exploration activities in Nigeria;

(v) distinguish between the upstream and downstream activities ;

(vi) suggest ways of controlling the effect of oil exploration.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) compare the types and basic features of private business organization;

(ii) assess the financing and management problems of business organizations;

(iii) identify the features of public enterprises;

(iv) differentiate between privatization and

d. Privatization and Commercialization as solutions to the problems of public enterprises.

20. Population

a. Meaning and theories;

b. Census: importance and problems.

c. Size and growth: over-population, under- population and optimum population.

d. Structure and distribution;

e. Population policy and economic development.

21. International Trade

a. Meaning and basis for international trade (absolute and comparative costs etc)

b. Balance of trade and balance of payments: problems and corrective measures;

c. Composition and direction of Nigeria’s foreign trade;

d. Exchange rate: meaning, types and determination.

22. International Economic Organizations

Roles and relevance of international organization e.g. ECOWAS, AU, EU, OPEC, ECA, IMF, EEC, OECD, World Bank, IBRD,

WTO, ADB and UNCTAD etc to Nigeria.

23. Factors of Production and their Theories

a. Types, features and rewards;

b. Determination of wages, interest and profits;

c. Theories: marginal productivity theory of wages and liquidity preference theory;

d. Factor mobility and efficiency;

e. Unemployment

commercialization;

(v) compare the advantages and disadvantages of privatization and commercialization;

Candidates should be able to:

(i) analyse the features of some population theories:

(ii) examine the relevance of the theories to Nigeria;

(iii) examine the uses and limitations of census data;

(iv) identify determinants of the size, composition and growth of population;

(v) analyse the structure and distribution of population;

(vi) appraise government population policy in Nigeria.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) examine the basis for international trade;

(ii) differentiate between absolute and comparative advantages;

(iii) distinguish between balance of trade and balance of payments and their corrective measures;

(iv) highlight the problems of balance of payments and their corrective measures;

(v) examine the composition and direction of Nigeria’s foreign trade;

(vi) identify the types of exchange rates;

(vii) examine how exchange rates are determined.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) identify the various economic organizations and their functions;

(vii) evaluate their relevance to the Nigerian economy

Candidates should be able to:

(i) identify the types; features and rewards of factors;

(ii) analyse the determination of wages, interest and profits;

(iii) interpret the marginal productivity of liquidity preference theories;

(iv) examine factors mobility and efficiency;

(v) examine the types and causes of unemployment in Nigeria;

(vi) suggest solutions to unemployment in Nigeria.

Aderinto, A.A names(s)? (1996). Economics: Exam Focus, Ibadan: University Press Plc. Black, J. (1997). Oxford Dictionary of Economics. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Eyiyere, D.O. (1980). Economics Made Easy, Benin City, Quality Publishers Ltd.

Fajana, F et al (1999). Countdown to SSCE/JME Economics Ibadan: Evans Falodun, A.B. et al (1997). Round-up Economics, Lagos: Longman

Kountsoyiannis, A. (1979). Modern Microeconomics, London: Macmillan

Lawal, O.A. (1985). Success in Economics, London: John Muray.

Lipsey, R.G. (1997). An Introduction to Positive Economics, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Samuelson, P and Nordhaus, W. (1989). Economics, Singapore: McGraw-Hill

Udu E and Agu G.A. (2005). New System Economics: a Senior Secondary Course, Ibadan: Africana FIRST Publishers Ltd.

Wannacott and Wannacott (1979). Economics, New York: McGraw-Hill. Wisdomline Pass at Once JAMB.

DOWNLOAD JAMB 2015 CBT EXAMINATION SYLLABUS…COMMERCE

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…Mr Odumosu with group A off students at a very meaningful JAMB TECHNIQUE SEMINAR ..please collect details from our office on 5th ave m close house 27 F/T.

The aim of the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) syllabus in Commerce is to prepare the candidates for the Board’s examination. It is designed to test their achievement of the course objectives, which are to:

(1) acquire the basic concepts of Commerce;

(2) examine the relationship between Commerce and other related business subjects;

(3) apply the principles of Commerce in Nigeria;

(4) appreciate modern, dynamic and positive changes in commercial activities.

1. Commerce

(i) Meaning

(ii) Functions

2. Occupation

(i) Meaning

(ii) Types (industrial, commercial and services)

3. Production

(i) Meaning

(ii) Factors, characteristics and rewards (land, labour, capital and entrepreneur)

(iii) Division of Labour

(iv) Specialization

(v) Types (primary, secondary and tertiary)

4. Trade

(i) Meaning

(ii) Classification:

Candidates should be able to:

(i) differentiate between Commerce and other related subjects;

(ii) identify the functions of Commerce. Candidates should be able to:

(i) compare the different types of occupation.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) differentiate between production and its factors;

(ii) identify the factors of production and their rewards;

(iii) distinguish between Division of Labour and specialization;

(iv) classify the types of production.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) identify the classes of trade;

(ii) compare the various types of retailers;

a. Home Trade

(i) Retail trade

- types of retailers

- functions of retailers

- trends in retailing (branding, self service, vending machines, the use of luncheon and fuel vouchers)

- advantages and disadvantages of retailers

(ii) Wholesale trade

- Types of wholesalers (merchant, agent and general)

- Functions of wholesalers

- Advantages and disadvantages of wholesalers

b. Foreign trade

(i) Basic issues in foreign trade (balance of trade visible and invisible, balance of payments and counter trade)

(ii) Procedures and documents used in export, import and entrepot trade

(iii) Barriers to international trade.

5. Purchase and Sales of Goods

(i) Procedure and documentation (enquiry, quotation, order, invoice, proforma invoice, statement of accounts, indent, consular invoice, bill of lading, certificate of origin, consignment note, etc)

(ii) Terms of trade (trade discount, quantity discount, cash discount, warranties, C.O.D., C.I.F., F.O.B., and E.O.E.)

(iii) Terms of payments

a. Cash – Legal tender

b. Credit

- Meaning

- Types and functions

- Merits and demerits

(iii) identify the functions of retailers;

(iv) classify modern retailing practices;

(v) identify the advantages of retail business and its disadvantages;

(vi) classify the types of wholesalers;

(vii) determine the functions of wholesalers to manufacturers and retailers;

(viii) analyse the merits and demerits of the existence of the middleman;

(ix) analyse the basic issues in foreign trade;

(x) differentiate between visible and invisible balance of trade;

(xi) distinguish the procedures from the documents used in foreign trade;

(xii) identify the barriers to international trade.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) examine the procedures and documents used in the purchase and sale of goods;

(ii) determine the terms of trade;

(iii) distinguish between cash and credit forms of payment;

(iv) identify the types of credit;

(v) analyse the merits and demerits of credit transactions.

6. Aids-to-trade

a. Advertising

(i) Types and media

(ii) Advantages and disadvantages

b. Banking

(i) Types of banks

(ii) Services

(iii) Challenges

c. Communication

(i) Process

(ii) Types

(iii) Trends

(iv) Merits and demerits

(v) Barriers

d. Insurance

(i) Types

(ii) Principles

(iii) Terms

(iv) Benefits

e. Tourism

(i) Terms

(ii) Benefits

(iii) Challenges

f. Transportation

(i) Importance

(ii) Forms/mode

(iii) Advantages and disadvantages

(iv) Regulatory agencies

g. Warehousing

(i) Importance

(ii) Types

(iii) Functions

(iv) Location

Candidates should be able to:

(i) distinguish between advertising and advertisement;

(ii) identify the different types of advertising and its media;

(iii) analyse the advantages and disadvantages of advertising;

(iv) categorize the different types of banks;

(v) assess the roles of western union, moneygram and automated teller machine (ATM) in business transactions;

(vi) identify the services rendered by banks;

(vii) appraise the various means of payments;

(viii) apply acquired banking knowledge in solving challenges facing banks;

(ix) specify the different stages in the communication process;

(x) analyse the types of communication;

(xi) differentiate between the demerits of and barriers to communication;

(xii) appraise the contributions of courier services, GSM, etc., to businesses.

(xiii) distinguish between the types of insurance;

(xiv) apply the principles of insurance to life situations;

(xv) appraise the relevance of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS);

(xvi) identify the relevant terms in tourism;

(xvii) differentiate between the benefits and challenges of tourism;

(xviii) appraise the relevance of the various forms of transportation;

(xix) determine the advantages and disadvantages of transportation;

(xx) compare and contrast the functions of Nigeria Airport Authority with Nigerian Ports Authority;;

(xxi) evaluate the factors that determine the siting of warehouses;

(xxii) appraise the contributions of private and public warehouses to businesses.

7. Business Units

(i) Forms of ownership

(ii) Characteristics/features

(iii) Registration of businesses

(iv) Business Mergers

(v) Determination of choice of business units

(vi) Dissolution and liquidation of businesses

8. Financing Business

(i) Sources of finance (personal savings, sale of shares and bonds, loans, debentures, mortgage, bank overdraft, ploughing back of profit, credit purchase, leasing

(ii) Problems of sourcing finance

(iii) Types of capital (share capital, capital owned, authorized (registered or nominal) capital, issued capital, called-up capital, paid-up capital, liquid capital, working capital and owners’ equity)

(iv) Calculation of forms of capital, profits (gross and net) and turnover

(v) Bureaux de change

9. Trade Associations

(i) Objectives and functions of trade associations (e.g. Cocoa Farmers’ Association, Garri Sellers’ Association, Poultry Farmers’ Association)

(ii) Objectives and functions of consumer association (e.g. thrift, credit and loans)

(iii) Objectives and functions of Chambers of Commerce (e.g. NACCIMA)

Candidates should be able to:

(i) identify the different forms of business units;

(ii) analyse the features of the forms of business units;

(iii) apply the knowledge of the procedures and documents gained in registering businesses;

(iv) appraise the different forms of business mergers and the reasons for merging;

(v) analyse the factors which determine the choice of business units;

(vi) differentiate between the dissolution and liquidation of business.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) identify the various ways of financing a business;

(ii) appraise the problems associated with sourcing finances for business;

(iii) determine the different types of capital;

(iv) compute the different forms of capital, profits and turnover;

(v) assess the role of bureaux de change in assisting businesses.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) differentiate between the objectives and functions of trade associations;

(ii) analyse the objectives and functions of consumer association;

(iii) evaluate the objectives and functions of Chambers of Commerce.

10. Money

(i) Evolution

(ii) Forms

(iii) Qualities/characteristics

(iv) Functions

11. Stock Exchange

(i) Importance and functions

(ii) Procedure of transactions and speculations

(iii) Types of securities (stocks, shares, bonds, debentures, etc)

(iv) Second-Tier Securities Market (STSM), listing requirements, types of companies for the market, advantages and operating regulations of the market.

12. Elements of Business Management

(i) Functions (planning, organizing, staffing, coordinating, motivating, communicating and controlling)

(ii) Principles (span of control, unity of command, delegation of authority, etc)

(iii) Organizational structure (line, line and staff, functional, matrix and committee)

(iv) Functional areas of business (production, marketing, finance and personnel)

13. Elements of Marketing

(i) Functions and Importance

(ii) The marketing concept (consumer orientation, customer satisfaction and integrated marketing)

(iii) Marketing mix (product, price, place (distribution and promotion)

(iv) Market Segmentation

(v) Customer Service.

14. Legal Aspects of Business

(i) Meaning and validity of a simple contract

(ii) Contract Agency, Sale of Goods Acts and Hire Purchase Act

(iii) Rights and obligations of employer and employee

Candidates should be able to:

(i) trace the origin of money;

(ii) categorize the forms and qualities of money;

(iii) appraise the functions of money.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) determine the importance and functions of the Stock Exchange;

(ii) analyse the procedure of transactions and speculation on the Stock Exchange;

(iii) classify the different securities traded on the Stock Exchange;

(iv) apply the knowledge acquired on the Stock Exchange for investment purposes.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) appraise the functions of management;

(ii) apply the principles of management to business and other situations;

(iii) interpret various organizational structures;

(iv) assess the functional areas of business.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) distinguish between the functions and importance of marketing;

(ii) relate the marketing concept to different situations;

(iii) evaluate the elements of marketing mix and channels of distribution;

(iv) determine the basis for segmentation;

(v) appraise the quality of customer service.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) anlyse the elements of the validity of a simple contract;

(ii) interpret Contract Agency, Sale of Goods Acts and Hire Purchase Acts;

(iii) compare the rights and obligations of employers with those of employees;

(iv) Government regulations of business – registration of business, patents, trade marks and copyrights

(v) Consumer protection – need for, and means of protection (Government legislation, Foods and Drugs Act, Standards Organization Act, Trade Descriptions Act, Consumer Association, Consumer Protection Council, NAFDAC, NDLEA, Customs and Excise, etc.)

15. Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

a. Computer

(i) Appreciation/application

(ii) Types

(iii) Functions

(iv) Advantages and disadvantages

(v) Challenges

b. Terms (Internet, Intranet, browsing, password, e-mail, , yahoo, search, cyber café, Local Area Network, etc.)

c. Activities

(i) e-commerce

(ii) e-banking

(iii) e-business

16. Business Environment and Social Responsibility

(i) Legal, political, economic, social, cultural, technological environment, etc

(ii) Safe products, philanthropic and social environment and societal consideration

(iii) Types of pollution (water, air and land) and their implications.

(iv) distinguish between patents, trade marks and copyrights;

(v) identify the functions of consumerism;

(vi) assess the relevance of Government Agencies and Acts in the provision of safe goods and drugs.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) apply the knowledge gained from computer to solve problems;

(ii) determine the types and functions of computer;

(iii) appraise the challenges of using the computer in order to take precautionary measures;

(iv) identify the different terms used in ICT;

(v) analyse the merits and demerits of each activity.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) classify the types of business environment;

(ii) assess the role of social environment in the provision of safe products;

(iii) identify the different types of pollution;

(iv) assess their implications on business.

Anderson, D. J. (1978). Commerce for West Africa, London: Macmillan.

Ahukannah, L. I. names(s)? (1992). Commerce for Secondary Schools Onitsha: Africana – First Publishers.

Asaolu, A. and Igwe, P. M. (2005). New Syllabus Commerce for Secondary Schools Books 1 – 3 (Second Edition) Ibadan: Evans.

Babatunde, A. H. (1999). Handbook on Commerce for Schools and College, (First Edition), Global Publications.

Eriki, P. O. (1998). Working with Computer, Benin: Bofic Publishers. French, C. S. (2000). Computer Science, (Fifth Edition), Britain: Ashford.

Ibru, G. M. (2004). Nigeria: The Promise of Tourism, Lagos: G.S.L. Publishing Limited.

Igwe, P. M. names(s)? (2004). Countdown to WASSCE/SSCE/NECO/JME Commerce, Ibadan: Evans. James, A. F, names(s)? (1996). Management, (Sixth Edition), New Delhi: Prentice Hall).

Nwachukwu, C. C. (1999). Management Theory and Practice, Onitsha: Africana – FIRST Publishers.

Odedokun, M. Onames(s)? (1999). Commerce for Senior Secondary School, Books 1 – 3, Lagos: Longman.

Odoom, F. F. (1998). Commerce for Senior Secondary School, Books 1 – 3, Ibadan: Onibonoje. Onifade, A. (2001). Management: Office Business Education, Abeokuta: KAPPCO.

Onifade, A. (2002). The Computer for Word Processing and Internet, Abeokuta: KAPPCO. Onu, A. J. C. (2000). Marketing Today, Abuja: Precious Treasures Ltd.

Pallister, J. and Isaacs, A. (eds) (2002). A Dictionary of Business (Third Edition), Oxford: Oxford University Press.

DOWNLOAD JAMB 2015 CBT EXAMINATION SYLLABUS…CRK

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The aim of the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) syllabus in Christian Religious Studies is to prepare the candidates for the Board’s examination. It is designed to test their achievement of the course objectives, which are to:

1. acquire the knowledge and understanding of the tenets of the Christian faith as contained in the Bible

2. interpret biblical teachings and themes;

3. apply biblical teachings and tenets to life in society; The syllabus is divided into four sections, namely:

SECTION A: Themes from creation to the Division of the Kingdom

SECTION B: Themes from the Division of the Kingdom to the Return from Exile and the Prophets

SECTION C: Themes from the four Gospels and Acts of the Apostles

SECTION D: Themes from selected Epistle

SECTION A:

Themes from Creation to the Division of the Kingdom

1. The Sovereignty of God

God as Creator and Controller of the Universe (Gen. 1 and 2) cf. Amos 9:5-6; Is. 45:5-12

2. The Covenant

(a) The flood and God’s covenant with Noah (Gen. 6:1-22; 7:1-24; 9:1-17)

(b) God’s covenant with Abraham (Gen. 11:31-32; 12:1-9; 17:1-21; 21:1-13; 25:19-26)

(c) God’s covenant with Israel (Ex. 19; 20;

Candidates should be able to:

i. interpret the term ‘sovereignty;

ii. analyse God’s process of creation;

iii. interpret the sequence of creation;

iv. identify man’s role in advancing God’s purpose in creation.

Candidates should be able to:

i. interpret the concept of covenant;

ii. examine the importance and implication of the covenant;

iii. distinguish between God’s covenants with Noah, Abraham and Israel;

iv. Distinguish between the old and the new

24:1-11; cf. Deut. 28:1-19)

(d) The New Covenant (Jer. 31:31-34; Ezek 36:25-28)

3. Leadership Qualities:

Examples of

(a) Joseph (Gen. 37:1-28; 41:1-57; 45:1-15)

(b) Moses (Ex. 1; 2; 3; 4:1-17; 5; 12; Num.

13:1-20; 14:1-19)

(c) Joshua (Num. 13:21-33; 27:15-23; Josh.

1:1-15; 6; 7; 24:1-31)

(d) Judges (Deborah-Jug. 4:1-24; Gideon- Judge 6:11-40; Samson-Judge 13:1-7, 21- 25; 16:4-31)

4. Devine Providence

(a) Guidance and Protection (Gen. 24:1-61; 28:10-22; 46:1-7: Ex. 13:17-22; 14:1-4; 10-31)

(b) Provision (Gen. 21:14-18; 22:1-14; Ex.

16:1-21; 17:1-7; Num. 20:1-13; 1 Kings

17:1-16)

5. Parental Responsibility:

Examples of

(a) Eli and Samuel (1 Sam. 2:11-36; 3:2-18; 4:10-22: 8:15)

(b) David and his sons (11 Sam. 13; 15:1-29; 18; 19:1-8)

(c) Asa and Jehoshaphat (1 Kings 15:9-15; 22:41-44; cf. Deut. 6:4-9; Prov. 4:1-10; 13:1; 24; 22:6; 23:13-14; 31:10-31)

6. i) Obedience and Rewards Examples of

(a) Abraham (Gen. 22:1-19)

(b) Hebrew Midwives (Ex. 1:8-22)

(c) David (1 Sam. 30:1-20)

ii) Disobedience and Consequences Examples of

(a) Adam (Gen. 2:15-25; 3)

(b) Collection of Manna (Ex. 16:22-30)

(c) The Golden Calf (Ex. 32)

(d) Moses (Num. 20:7-12; Deut. 34:1-6)

(e) Saul (1 Sam. 10:1-16; 15:1-25; 16:14-23;

31:1-13)

7. A man after God’s own heart

(a) The early life of David (1 Sam. 16:1-13; 17; 18:17-30; 22:1-5; 24:1-23; II Sam. 2:1-7; 3:1-39)

(b) David’s submission to the will of God (I Sam. 26:1-25); II Sam 12:15-25

covenants.

Candidates should be able to:

i. ?? examine the circumstances that gave rise to the leadership of Joseph, Moses, Joshua and the Judges;

ii. identify the major talents of these leaders;

iii. assess God’s role in the works of these leaders;

iv. analyse the achievements of these leaders.

Candidates should be able to:

i. identify the different ways by which God guided and protected the people of Israel;

ii. specify how God provided for His people;

iii. identify the different occasions when God provided for Israel.

Candidates should be able to:

i. determine the extent to which Eli, Samuel and David were responsible for the short-comings of their children:

ii. describe how Asa and Jehoshaphat pleased God.

Candidates should be able to:

i. determine why Abraham, the Hebrew midwives and David obeyed God;

ii. identify the rewards for obideince.

Candidates should be able to:

i. compare the disobedience of Adam, the people of Israel, Moses and Saul;

ii. indicate the reasons for their disobedience;

iii. determine the consequences of disobedience.

Candidates should be able to:

i. identify David’s childhood experiences;

ii. specify how David submitted to the will of God;

iii. examine the situations that led to David’s sin and repentance;

(c) Repentance and forgiveness (II Sam. 11; 12:1-15, cf. Ps. 51:130)

8. Decision – Making

(a) Reliance on medium (I Sam. 28:3-25)

(b) The Wisdom of Solomon (I Kings 3:3-28; 4:29-34; 5:1-12; 8:1-53)

(c) Unwise Policies of Solomon and Rehoboam (I Kings 9:15-23; 11:1-40; 12:1-20)

SECTION B:

Themes from the Division of the Kingdom to the Return from Exile and the Prophets

1. Greed and its Effects Example of

(a) Ahab (I Kings 21:1-29; 22:1-40; II Kings 9:30-37)

(b) Gehazi (II Kings 5:1-27 cf (Josh 7)

2. The Supremacy of God

Religious Tension and the Power of God on Mount Carmel (I Kings 16:29-34; 17:1-7; 18;

19:1-18)

3. Religious Reforms in Judah

(a) Cleansing of the Temple (II Kings 22)

(b) Renewal of the Covenant (II Kings 23:1- 30)

4. Concern for Judah

(a) The fall of Jerusalem (II kings 24; 25:1- 17)

(b) Condition of Judah (Neh. 1:1-11; Ezra 1:1-11)

(c) Response to the state of Judah (Neh. 2; 4:1-23 Ezra 3:4; 5; 6; 7)

5. Faith in God

Faith, Courage and Protection (Dan. 1; 3:1- 30;6:1-28)

iv. determine why God forgave David.

Candidates should be able to:

i. identify the source of Solomon’s wisdom;

ii. compare the different ways used by Saul and Solomon in making decision;

iii. analyse the decisions made by Saul, David,

Solomon and Rehoboam

iv. assess the consequences of Solomon and Rehoboan’s unwise decisions.

Candidates should be able to:

i. interpret the meaning of greed;

ii. distinguish between Ahab and Gehazi’s greed;

iii. deduce the consequences of Ahab and Gehazi’s greed.

Candidates should be able to:

i. analyse the religious situation in Israel at the times of Elijah and Ahab;

ii. identify the characters involved in the contest on Mount Carmel

iii. differentiate between God’s power and the Baal.

Candidates should be able to:

i. analyse Josiah’s religious reforms;

ii. determine the reasons for the renewal of the covenant;

iii. assess the significant of the reforms.

Candidates should be able to:

i. identify the reasons for the fall of Jerusalem;

ii. examine the condition of Judah during the exile;

iii. analyse the people’s response to the call of Nehemiah and Ezra to rebuild Jerusalem

iv. distinguish between Nehemiah and Ezra’s responses to the opposition of their enemies

Candidates should be able to:

i. analyse the stories of Shadrach, Meshach, Abednego and Daniel;

ii. determine the occasion on which the four men demonstrated faith;

iii. analyse the effects of the faith of the four men on the Babylonians.

6. God’s Message to Nineveh

Jonah and his massage (Jonah 1; 2; 3 and 4)

7. Social, Justice, True Religion and Divine Love

(a) Social justice and true religion (Amos 2:6-8; 4; 5:1-25; 6:1-14; 7:10-17; 8:4-14)

(b) Divine Love and human reponse (Hosea 1; 2; 3; 4; 6:1-11; 14)

8. Holiness and Divine Call

(Isaiah 6:1-13; Ezek. 2; 3:1-11; Jer. 1:4-10)

9. Punishment and Hope

(Jer. 3:11-18; 32:26-35; Ezek. 18; 37:1-14;

Isaiah 61)

SECTION C:

Themes from the four Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles

1. The Birth and early Life of Jesus

(a) John, the forerunner of Jesus (Lk. 1:5-25; 57-66; 3:1-20; 7:18-35; Mk. 1:1-8; 6:14- 29; Mt. 3:1-12; Jn. 1:6-8; 19-37)

(b) The brith and boyhood of Jesus (Mt. 1:18- 25; 2; Lk. 1:26-45:2)

2. The Baptism and Temptation of Jesus

(Mt. 3:13-17; 4:1-11; Mk. 1:9-13; Lk. 3:21-22;

4:1-13)

3. Discipleship

(a) The call of the first disciples (Mt. 4:18 22; 9:9-13; Mk. 1:16-20; 2:13-17; Lk. 5:1-11; 27-32)

(b) The cost of discipleship (Mt. 8:19-22; Lk. 9:57-63; 14:25-33)

Candidates should be able to:

i. analyse the story of Jonah’s call;

ii. describe the consequences of Jonah’s disobedience;

iii. assess the effect of Jonah’s message on the Ninevites;

iv. relate God’s response to repentance.

Candidates should be able to

i. determine what true religious is;

ii. identify the ills that led to the call for social justice in Amos’ time;

iii. Examine the condition in Israel during Hosea’s time;

iv. analyse Hosea’s portrayal of divine love and human response.

Candidates should be able to:

i. distinguish between the calls of Isaiah, Ezekiel and Jeremiah;

ii. compare the assignments given to these prophets;

iii. determine the need for God’s people to be holy.

Candidates should be able to:

i. describe the situations that led to the punishment of Israel;

ii. identify the conditions for hope;

iii. determine the benefits of restoration.

Candidates should be able to:

i. compare the stories of the birth of John and Jesus;

ii. assess the importance of John as the forerunner of Jesus;

iii. analyse the boyhood of Jesus.

Candidates should be able to:

i. determine the meaning and purpose of the baptism of Jesus

ii. specify the temptation of Jesus;

iii. examine the significance of the temptation of Jesus.

Candidates should be able to:

i. identify the first disciples to be called by Jesus;

ii. determine the cost of discipleship;

iii. compare the different accounts of discipleship in the synoptic gospels.

4. Miracles

(a) Nature Miracles

(i) Stilling the storm (Mt. 8:23-27; Mk. 4:35-41; Lk.8:22-25)

(ii) Feeding of the Five Thousand (Mt. 4:13-24; Mk. 6:30-44; Lk, 9:10-17; Jn. 6:1-13)

(iii) Walking on the sea (Mt. 4:22-26; Mk. 6:45-52; Jn. 6:16-21)

(iv) Changing water to wine (Jn. 2:1-11)

(b) Miracles of Resuscitation

(i) The raising of Lazarus (Jn. 11:1-45)

(ii) The raising of Jairu’s daughter (Lk. 8:41-42, 49-56; Mk. 5:21-43)

(iii) The raising of the widow’s son at Nain (Lk. 7:11-17)

(c) Healing Miracles

(i) The leper (Mt. 8:1-4; Mk. 1:40-45; Lk. 5:12-16; 17:11-19)

(ii) The paralytic at the pool (Jn. 5:1-17)

(iii) The centurion’s servant (Mt. 8:5-13; Lk. 7:1-10)

(iv) The blind (Jn. 9:1-12; Mk. 10:46-52; Lk. 18:35-43)

(d) Exorcism

(i) The Gerasenes (Gadarenes) demoniac (Mt. 8:28-34; Mk. 5:1-20; Lk. 8:21- 39)

(ii) The epileptic boy (Mk. 9:14-29; Lk. 9:37-43a; Mt. 17:14-21)

5. The Parables

(a) Parables of the Kingdom

(i) The sower (Mt. 13:1-23; Mk. 4:1-20) (ii) The weeds (Mt. 13:24-30; 36-43)

(b) Parables about love of God (Mt. 18:12- 14; Lk. 15:1-32)

(c) Parables about love for one another (Lk.10:25-37; 16:19-31)

(d) Parable about wealth: The rich fool (Lk. 12:13-21)

6. Sermon on the Mount

(Mt. 5; 6:1-18; Lk. 6:17-26; Mt. 6:19-34)

7. Mission of the Disciples (a)The mission of the twelve

(Mt. 10:5-15; Mk. 6:7-13; Lk. 9:1-16)

Candidates should be able to:

i. classify the different miracles of Jesus;

ii. indicate the occasion of each of the miracles;

iii. examine the significance of each of the miracles;

iv. assess the power of Jesus over nature, diseases, demons and death.

Candidates should be able to:

i. classify the different parables of Jesus;

ii. identify the occasion of each parable;

iii. interpret the meaning of each parable;

iv. give reasons why Jesus taught in parables.

Candidates should be able to:

i. analyse the teachings on the Mount;

ii. identify the demands of the Kingdom;

iii. determine the consequences of worldly possessions;

iv. associate the rewards for obedience with the sermon on the Mount.

Candidates should be able to:

i. distinguish between the mission of the twelve and the seventy;

(b)The mission of the seventy (Lk. 10:1-24)

8. The Great Confession

(Mt. 16:13-20; Mk. 8:27-30; Lk. 9:18-22)

9. The Transfiguration

(Mt. 17:1-13; Mk. 9:2-13; Lk. 9:28-36)

10. The Triumphal Entry and the cleansing of the Temple

(Mt. 21:1-17; Mk. 11:1-19; Lk. 19:29-48)

11. The Last Supper

(Mt. 26:17-30; Mk. 14:10-26

Lk. 22:7-23; Jn. 13:2-38)

12. The Trials and the Death of Jesus

(a) The Trials of Jesus

(i) Before the High Priest (Mt. 26:36-75;

Mk. 14:53-72

Lk. 22:66-71)

(ii) Before Pilate

(Mt. 27:11-26; Mk. 15:1-15;

Lk. 23:1-5; 13-25;

Jn. 18:28-40; 19:1-16)

(iii) Before Herod (Lk. 23:6-12)

(b) Crucifixion and Burial of Jesus (Mt. 27:32-66; Lk. 23:26-56; Mk. 15:16-47; Jn. 19:17-42)

13. Resurrection, Appearances and Ascension of Jesus (Mt. 28:1-20; Mk. 16:1-20; Lk. 24:1-53; Jn. 20:1-31; Acts 1:1-11)

ii. specify the instructions to the disciples;

iii. assess the outcomes of the missions.

Candidates should be able to:

i. analyse the confession by Peter;

ii. identify the occasion of the Great Confession;

iii. examine the significance of the Great Confession.

Candidates should be able to:

i. trace the event leading to the Transfiguration;

ii. determine the significance of the Transfiguration to the disciples;

iii. identify the personalities involved in the story of the Transfiguration

Candidates should be able to:

i. account for the Triumphal Entry and the cleansing of the Temple;

ii. determine the significance of the Triumphal Entry and the cleansing of the Temple;

iii. examine how the cleansing of the Temple caused hostility towards Jesus.

Candidates should be able to:

i. trace the story of the Last Supper;

ii. identify the location of the Last Supper;

iii. evaluate the significance of the Last Supper.

Candidates should be able to:

i. analyse the different trials of Jesus;

ii. analyse the Crucifixion and burial of Jesus;

iii. compare the account of John with that of the synoptic gospels on the crucifixion and burial of Jesus;

iv. deduce the lessons of the death of Jesus.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) trace the stories of the resurrection, appearances and

ascension of Jesus;

(ii) compare the accounts in the synoptic gospels,

14. Jesus’ Teachings about Himself

(a) The Bread of Life and the Living Water (Jn. 4:7-15; 6:25-58)

(b) The Light of the World (Jn. 1:4-8; 3:19-21; 8:12 9:1-5; 12:35-36)

(a) The Door and the Good Shepherd (Jn. 10:1-18)

(b) The True Vine (Jn. 15:1-11)

15. Love

(a) God’s love for man (Jn. 3:16-18)

(b) Love for one another (Jn. 13:34-35; 15:12-13 cf. I Jn. 4:7-21)

16. Fellowship in the Early Church

(a) Communal living (Acts 1:15-26; 2:41-47; 4:32-37)

(b) Problems of communal living and solutions (Acts 5:1-11, 6:1-6)

17. The Holy Spirit and the Mission of the Church

(a) The Pentecost (Acts 1:8; 2:1-41)

(b) The Mission of the Church (Acts 8:4-40)

18. Opposition to the Gospel Message

(a) The arrest and imprisonment of Peter and John

(Acts 3; 4:1-22; 5:17-42

12:1-24)

(b) The martyrdom of Stephen (Acts 6:8-15; 7)

(c) Persecution by Saul (Acts 8:1-3; 9:1-2) cf. Gal. 1:11-17

19. Mission to the Gentiles

(a) Conversion of Saul

Gospel of John and the Acts of the Apostles;

(iii) compare the personalities involved in the stories.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) analyse the different teachings of Jesus about Himself;

(ii) account for the reasons for Jesus’ teachings about

Himself;

(iii) interpret the meanings of the symbols used by Jesus about Himself.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) describe God’s love for man;

(ii) specify the ways they can love one another;

(iii) evaluate the significance of love.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) account for communal living in the Early Church;

(ii) identify the problems of communal living and their

solutions;

(iii) examine how communal living helped the growth of

the Early Church.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) trace the story of the Pentecost;

(ii) examine the significance of the Pentecost;

(iii) analyse the mission of the Church.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) trace the story of the arrest and imprisonment of Peter and John;

(ii) trace the events that led to the Martyrdom of Stephen;

(iii) account for the role of Saul in the persecution of the

Church;

(iv) relate the importance of persecution to the growth of

the Church.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) compare the conversion of Saul

(Acts 9:1-30; 22:4-21;

26:9-18)

(b) Conversion of Cornelius (Acts 10:1-48)

(c) The commissioning and mission of Paul (Acts 13; 14:1-20);

(d) The Council of Jerusalem (Acts 15:1-35; Gal. 2:1-21)

(e) Persecution of Paul (Acts 16:11-40; 19:23-41 21:27-36)

cf. II Cor. 11:23-33

SECTION D:

Themes from Selected Epistles

1. Justification by Faith

(Rom. 3:21-24; 5:1-11; 10:1-13)

2. The Law and Grace (Rom. 4:13-25; 5:18-21; Gal. 3:10-14; 19-29)

3. New Life in Christ

(Rom. 6:1-4; 12-14; Col. 3:1-17;

Gals. 5:16-26; II Cor. 5:16-19;

I Thess. 4:1-8; Rom. 12)

4. Christians as Joint Heirs with Christ (Gal. 3:23-29; 4:1-7)

5. Humility

(Phil. 2:1-11; I Pet. 5:5-11)

6. Forgiveness

(Philemon; II Cor. 2:5-11)

and Cornelius;

(ii) analyse the commissioning and mission of Paul;

(iii) examine the main decisions at the Council of Jerusalem;

(iv) identify the personalities

involved at the Council of Jerusalem;

(v) account for the persecution of Paul;

(vi) assess Paul’s role in the mission to the Gentiles.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) interpret the term ‘justification’ by faith;

(ii) identify the basic conditions for justification;

(iii) determine the fruits of justification.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) examine the purpose and significance of the law and

grace;

(ii) identify the place of the law among the Jews.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) describe the characteristics of the old life;

(ii) analyse the new life in Christ;

(iii) identify the conditions of the new life;

(iv) compare the different writings of Paul on the new life in Christ;

(v) distinguish between the old and the new life.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) describe how Christian could be joint heirs with Christ;

(ii) indicate the benefits of being Joint heirs with Christ.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) determine the meaning of the term ‘humility’

(ii) identify the requirements of humility;

(iii) identify the rewards of humility.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) analyse Paul’s teaching on forgiveness;

(ii) assess the benefits of

7. Spiritual Gifts

(I Cor. 12; Rom. 12:3-18; I Cor. 14)

8. Christian Giving

(Phil. 4:14-20; II Cor. 8:1-5; 9)

9. Civic Responsibility (Rom. 13; I Tim. 2:1-4)

10. Dignity of Labour

(II Thess. 3:6-15; Col. 3:23-35)

11. The Second Coming of Christ

(a) The signs of the Coming of Christ (I

Thess.

4:13-18; II Thess. 2:1-12)

(b) Preparation for His coming

(I Thess. 5:1-11; II Pet. 3:1-13)

12. Impartiality (James 2:1-13) cf. Acts 10:34-35

13. Effective Prayer

(James 1:2-8; 4:1-3; 5:13-18)

14. Christian Living in the Community

(a)Interpersonal relationship among Christians (I Pet. 5:1-4; Rom. 12:3-21)

(b)Christians living among non-

Christians (I Pet. 2:3-25; Rom. 15:1-2)

(c) Christian attitude to persecution (I Pet. 1:5-9; 4:1-19)

(d)Relationship in the Christian Family (Eph. 6: 1-9; Col. 3:18-21;

I Pet. 3:1-7)

forgiveness.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) differentiate between the types of spiritual gifts;

(ii) analyse the use of spiritual gifts by the individual.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) interpret the concept of Christian giving;

(ii) relate the teachings of Paul to Christian giving.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) identify the need for obedience to authority;

(ii) specify the requirements of good citizenship.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) interpret the concept of dignity of labour;

(ii) analyse the benefits of labour.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) identify the signs of the Second Coming of Christ;

(ii) specify the preparations for His coming;

(iii) indicate what will happen during His Second Coming.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) interpret the concept of impartiality;

(ii) compare partiality and impartiality;

(iii) examine the consequences of impartiality.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) identify the requirements of effective prayer;

(ii) distinguish between effective and ineffective prayer.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) determine interpersonal relationships among Christians;

(ii) analyse Christian living among non-Christians;

(iii) relate Christians attitude to persecution;

(iv) determine the relationship in the Christian family

RECOMMENDED TEXTS

Adetunje, P.G. names(s)? (2000). ExamFocus Christian Religious Knowledge Ibadan: University Press Plc

Adeyemo, I. O. names(s)? (1998). Christian Religious Knowledge for Secondary Schools Books1 – 3, Ibadan: Onibonoje Adeyinka, A. A. names(s)? (1991). Christian Religious Knowledge for Senior Secondary Schools, Book 1 – 3, Lagos: Longman

Aghaeghuna, E. O. N (1988). Senior Secondary School Christian Religious Knowledge themes from Selected Epistles,

Vol 1 – III, Awka, Jet Publishers

Dopamu A. names(s)? (1990). Christian Religious Knowledge for Senior Secondary Schools Books 1 – 3, Lagos: Nelson Ilori J. A. names(s)? (1980). Christian Religious Knowledge for Senior Secondary Schools Books 1 – 3, Ibadan: Evans Revised Standard Version, Stonchill Green: Bible Society Publishing House (1971).

Wisdomline Pass at Once JAMB.

DOWNLOAD JAMB 2015 CBT EXAMINATION SYLLABUS…BIOLOGY

DOWNLOAD JAMB 2015 CBT EXAMINATION SYLLABUS…BIOLOGY

…JAMB student

The aim of the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) syllabus in Biology is to prepare the candidates for the Board’s examination. It is designed to test their achievement of the course objectives, which are to:

1. demonstrate sufficient knowledge of the concepts of the interdependence and unity of life;

2. account for continuity of life through reorganization, inheritance and evolution;

3. apply biological principles and concepts to everyday life, especially to matters affecting the individual, society, the environment, community health and the economy.

1. Living organisms:

a. Characteristics

b. Cell structure and functions of cell Components

c. Level of organization

i. Cell e.g. Amoeba, cheek cell

ii. Tissue, e.g. epithelial tissues

iii. Organ, e.g. leaf and heart

iv. Systems, e.g. reproductive

v. Organisms e.g. Chlamydomonas

2. Evolution among the following:

a. Monera (prokaryotes), e.g. bacteria and blue green algae.

b. Protista (protozoans and protophyta),

e.g. Amoeba, Euglena and Paramecium

c. Fungi, e.g. mushroom and Rhizopus.

Candidates should be able to:

I differentiate between the characteristics of living and non-living things;

ii. identify the cell structures;

iii. analyse the functions of the components of plants and animal cells;

iv. compare and contrast the structure of plant and animal cells;

v. trace the levels of organization among organisms in their logical sequence in relation to the five kingdom classification of living organisms.

Candidates should be able to:

i. analyse external features and characteristics of the listed organisms:

ii. apply the knowledge from (i) above to demonstrate increase in structural complexity;

iii. trace the stages in the life histories of the listed organisms;

d. Plantae (plants)

i. Thallophyta (e.g. Spirogyra)

ii. Bryophyta (mosses and liveworts) e.g.

Bryachymenium and Merchantia.

iii. Pteridophyta (ferns) e.g. Dryopteris.

iv. Spermatophyta (Gymnospermae and Angiospermae)

- Gymnosperms e.g. Cycads and conifers.

- Angiosperms (monocots, e.g. maize; dicots, e.g. water leaf)

e. Animalia (animals)

i. Invertebrates

- coelenterate (e.g. Hydra)

- Platyhelminthes (flatworms) e.g. Taenia

- Nematoda (roundworms)

- Annelida (e.g. earthworm)

- Arthropoda (insects) e.g. Millipedes, ticks, mosquito, cockroach, housefly, bee, butterfly

- Mollusca (e.g. snails)

ii. Multicellular animals (vertebrates)

- pisces (cartilaginous and bony fish)

- Amphibia (e.g. toads and frogs)

- Reptilia (e.g. lizards, snakes and turtles)

- Aves (birds)

- Mammalia (mammals)

3. Structural/behavioural adaptations of vertebrates (bony fish, toad, lizard, bird, small mammal) to the environment.

iv. apply the knowledge of the life histories to demonstrate gradual transition from life in water to life on land;

v. trace the evolution of the listed plants.

Candidates should be able to:

i. trace the evolution of the invertebrate animals;

ii. determine the economic importance of the insects studied;

iii. asses their values to the environment;

i. trace the evolution of multi-cellular animals;

ii. determine their economic importance.

Candidates should be able to:

i. describe how the various structures and behaviour adapt these organisms to their environment;

1. Internal structure of a flowering plant

i. Root

ii. Stem

iii. Leaf

b. Internal structure of a mammal

2. Nutrition

a. Modes of nutrition

i. Autotrophic

ii. Heterotrophic

Types of Nutrition

b. Plant nutrition

i. Photosynthesis

ii. Mineral requirements (macro and micro-nutrients)

Candidates should be able to:

i. identify the transverse sections of these organs;

ii. relate the structure of these organs to their functions.

Candidates should be able to:

i. examine the arrangement of the mammalian internal organs;

ii. describe the appearance and position of the digestive, reproductive and excretory organs.

Candidates should be able to:

i. compare the photosynthetic and chemosynthetic modes of nutrition;

ii. provide examples from both flowering and non- flowering plants;

iii. compare autotropic and heterotrophic modes of nutrition.

Candidates should be able to: differentiate the following examples:

- holozoic (sheep and man)

- Parasitic (roundworm, tapeworm and

Loranthus)

- saprophytic (Rhizopus and mushroom)

- carnivorous plants (sundew and bladderwort)

- determine their nutritional value.

Candidates should be able to:

i. analyse the light and dark reactions, materials and conditions necessary for photosynthesis;

ii. determine the necessity of light, carbon (IV) oxide and chlorophyll in photosynthesis;

iii. detect the presence of starch in a leaf as an evidence of photosynthesis.

Candidates should be able to:

i. identify macro-and micro-elements required by plants;

ii. determine the deficiency symptoms of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium.

c. Animal nutrition

i. Classes of food substances; carbohydrates, proteins, fats and oils, vitamins, mineral salts and water

ii. Food tests (e.g. starch, reducing sugar, protein, oil, fat etc.

iii. The mammalian tooth (structures, types and functions)

iv. Mammalian alimentary canal

v. Nutrition process (ingestion, digestion, absorption, and assimilation of digested food.

3. Transport

a. Need for transportation

b. Materials for transportation.

Excretory products, gases, manufactured food, digested food, nutrient, water and

hormones)

c. Channels for transportation

i. Mammalian circulatory system (heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries)

ii Plant vascular system (phloem and xylem)

Candidates should be able to:

i. indicate the sources of the various classes of food;

ii. relate the importance of each class;

iii. determine the importance of a balanced diet.

Candidates should be able to detect the presence of the listed food items from the result of a given experiment.

Candidates should be able to:

i. describe the structure of a typical mammalian tooth;

ii. differentiate the types of mammalian tooth and relate their structures to their functions.

iii. compare the dental formulae of man, sheep, and dog.

Candidates should be able to:

i. relate the structure of the various components of the alimentary canal and its accessory organs (liver, pancreas, and gall bladder) to their functions.

Candidates should be able to:

i. identify the general characteristics of digestive enzymes;

ii. associate enzymes with digestion of carbohydrates, proteins and fats;

iii. determine the end products of these classes of food.

Candidates should be able to:

i. determine the relationship between increase in size and complexity and the need for the development of a transport system.

Candidates should be able to:

i. determine the sources of materials and the forms in which they are transported.

Candidates should be able to:

i. describe the general circulatory system;

ii. compare specific functions of the hepatic portal vein, the pulmonary vein and artery, aorta, the renal artery and vein

Candidates should be able to:

i. identify the organs of the plant vascular system;

ii. compare the specific functions of the phloem and xylem

d. Media and processes of mechanism for transportation.

4. Respiration

a. Respiratory organs and surfaces

b. The mechanism of gaseous exchange in:

i. Plants

ii. Mammals

c. Aerobic respiration

d. Anaerobic respiration

Candidates should be able to:

i. identify media of transportation (e.g. cytoplasm, cell sap, body fluid, blood and lymph);

ii. determine the composition of blood and lymph;

iii. describe diffusion, osmosis, plasmolysis and turgidity as mechanism of transportation in organisms;

iv. compare the various mechanisms of open circulatory systems, transpiration pull, root pressure and active transport as mechanism of transportation in plants.

Candidates should be able to:

i. examine the significance of respiration;

ii. describe the process of glycolysis;

iii. compare the similarities of the process in plants and animals;

iv. deduce from an experimental set up, gaseous exchange and products, exchange and production of heat energy during respiration.

Candidates should be able to:

i. describe the following respiratory organs and surfaces with organisms in which they occur; body surface, gill, trachea, lungs, stomata and lenticels;

ii. relate the characteristics of the respiratory surfaces listed above to their functions.

Candidates should be able to:

i. describe the mechanism for the opening and closing of the stomata;

ii. determine respiratory movements in these animals.

Candidates should be able to:

iii. examine the role of oxygen in the liberation of energy for the activities of the living organisms;

iv. deduce the effect of insufficient supply of oxygen to the muscles.

Candidates should be able to:

i. use yeast cells and sugar solution to demonstrate the process of fermentation;

ii. asses the economic importance of yeasts;

5.Excretion

a. Types of excretory structures: contractile vacuole, flamecell, nephridium, Malpighian tubule, kidney, stoma and lenticel.

b. Excretory mechanisms:

i. Kidneys

ii. lungs

ii. skin

c. Excretory products of plants

6. Support and movement

a. Tropic, tactic, nastic and sleep movements in plants

b. supporting tissues in animals

c. Types and functions of the skeleton

i. Exoskeleton

ii. Endoskeleton

iii. Functions of the skeleton in animals

Candidates should be able to:

i. Interpret the meaning and significance of excretion;

ii. identify the characteristics of each structure.

Candidates should be able to:

i. relate the structure of the kidneys to the excretory and osmo-regulatory functions.

. identify the functions and excretory products of the lungs and the skin.

Candidates should be able to:

i. deduce the economic importance of the excretory products of plants, carbon (IV) oxide, tannins,

resins, gums, mucilage, alkaloids etc.

Candidates should be able to:

i. determine the need for support and movement in organisms;

ii. identify supporting tissues in plants (collenchyma, sclerenchyma, xylem and phloem fibres);

iii. describe the distribution of supporting tissues in roots, stem, and leaf.

Candidates should be able to:

i. relate the response of plants to the stimuli of light, water, gravity and touch;

ii. identify the regions of growth in roots and shoots and the roles of auxins in tropism.

Candidates should be able to:

i. relate the location of chitin, cartilage and bone to their supporting function;

ii. relate the structure and the general layout of the mammalian skeleton to their supportive, locomotive and respiratory function;

iii. differentiate types of joints using appropriate examples.

Candidates should be able to:

i. apply the protective, supportive, locomotive and respiratory functions of the skeleton to the wellbeing of the animal;

7. Reproduction

a. A sexual reproduction

i. Fission as in Paramecium

ii. Budding as in yeast

iii. Natural vegetative propagation

iv. Artificial vegetative propagation.

b. sexual reproduction in flowering plants

i. Floral parts and their functions

ii. Pollination and fertilization

iii. products of sexual reproduction

c. Reproduction in mammals

i. structures and functions of the male and female reproductive organs

ii. Fertilization and development. (Fusion of gamates)

8. Growth

a. meaning fo grwoth

b. Germination of seeds and condition necessary for germination of seeds.

9. Co-ordination and control

a. Nervous coordination:

i. the components, structure and functions of the central nervous system;

ii. The components and functions of the peripheral nervous systems;

iii. Mechanism of transmission of impulses;

iv. Reflex action

Candidates should be able to:

i. differentiate between asexual and sexual reproduction;

ii. apply natural vegetative propagation in crop production and multiplication;

iii. apply grafting, budding and layering in agricultural practices.

Candidates should be able to:

i. relate parts of flower to their functions and reproductive process;

ii. deduce the advantages of cross pollination;

iii. deduce the different types of placentation that develop into simple, aggregate, multiple and succulent fruits.

Candidates should be able to:

i. differentiate between male and female reproductive organs;

ii. relate their structure and function to the production of offspring.

Candidates should be able to:

i. describe the fusion of gametes as a process of fertilization;

ii. relate the effects of the mother’s health, nutrition and indiscriminate use of drugs on the developmental stages of the embryo up to birth.

Candidates should be able to:

i. apply the knowledge of the conditions necessary for germination on plants growth;

ii. differentiate between epigeal and hypogeal germination.

Candidates should be able to:

i. apply the knowledge of the structure and function of the central nervous system in the coordination of body functions in organisms;

ii. illustrate reflex actions such as blinking of the eyes, knee jerk; etc.;

iii. differentiate between reflex and voluntary actions as well as conditioned reflexes such as salivation, riding a bicycle and swimming;

b. The sense organs

i. skin (tactile)

ii. nose (olfactory)

iii. tongue (taste)

iv. eye (sight)

v. ear (auditory)

c. Hormonal control

i. animal hormonal system

- Pituitary

- thyroid

- parathyroid

- adrenal gland

- pancreas

- gonads

ii. Plant hormones (phytohormones)

d. Homeostasis

i. Body temperature regulation

ii. Salt and water regulation

Candidates should be able to:

i. associate the listed sense organs with their functions;

ii. apply the knowledge of the structure and functions of these sense organs in detecting an correcting their defects.

Candidates should be able to:

i. locate the listed endocrine glands in animals;

ii. relate the hormone produced by each of these glands to their functions.

Candidates should be able to:

i. examine the effects of various phytohormones (e.g. auxins, gibberellin, cytokinin, and ethylene) on growth, tropism, flowering, fruit ripening and leaf abscission.

Candidates should be able to:

i. relate the function of hormones to regulating the levels of materials inside the body.

1. Factors affecting the distribution of Organisms

i. Abiotic

ii. Biotic

Candidates should be able to:

i. deduce the effects of temperature; rainfall, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, altitude, salinity, turbidity, pH and edaphic (soil) conditions on the distribution of organisms.

ii. use appropriate equipment (e.g. sechi disc, thermometer, rain gauge etc) to measure abiotic factors.

2. Symbiotic interactions of plants and animals

(a) Food chains, food webs and trophic levels

(b) Energy flow in the ecosystem.

(c) Nutrient cycling in nature

i. carbon cycle

ii. water cycle

iii. Nitrogen cycle

3. Natural Habitats

(a) Aquatic (e.g. ponds, streams, lakes seashores and mangrove swamps)

(b) Terrestrial/arboreal (e.g. tree-tops of oil palm, abandoned farmland or a dry grassy (savanna) field, and burrow or hole.

4. Local (Nigerian) Biomes)

a. Tropical rainforest

Candidates should be able to:

i. describe how the activities of plants/animals (particularly human) affect the distribution of organisms.

Candidates should be able to:

i. determine appropriate examples of symbiosis, parasitism, saprophytism, comensalism, mutualism, amensalism, competition, predation and cooperation among organisms;

ii. associate the distribution of organisms with food chains and food webs in particular habitats.

Candidates should be able to:

i. interpret the ecological pyramids of numbers, biomass and energy.

Candidates should be able to:

i. describe the cycle and its significance including the balance of atmospheric oxygen and carbon (IV) oxide.

Candidates should be able to:

i. assess the effects of water cycle on other nurtrient cycles.

Candidates should be able to:

i. relate the roles of bacteria and leguminous plants in the cycling of nitrogen.

Candidates should be able to:

i. associate plants and animals with each of these habitats.

Candidates should be able to:

i. relate adaptive features to the habitats in which an organisms lives.

Candidates should be able to:

i. locate biomes to regions

ii. apply the knowledge of the features of the listed local biomes in determining the characteristics of different regions of Nigeria.

b. Guinea savanna (southern and northern)

c. Sudan Savanna

d. Desert

e. Highlands of montane forests and grasslands of the Obudu, Jos, Mambilla Plateau.

5. The Ecology of Populations:

(a) Population density and overcrowding.

(b) Factors affecting population sizes:

i. Biotic (e.g. food, pest, disease, predation, competition, reproductive ability).

ii. Abiotic (e.g. temperature, space, light, rainfall, topography, pressure, pH, etc.

c. Ecological succession

i. primary succession

ii. secondary succession

6. SOIL

a) (i) characteristics of different types of soil (sandy, loamy, clayey)

i. soil structure

ii. porosity, capillarity and humus content

iii. Components of the soil

i. inorganic

ii. organic

iii. soil organisms

b) Soil fertility:

i. loss of soil fertility

Candidates should be able to:

i. determine the reasons for rapid changes in human population and the consequences of overcrowding;

ii. compute/calculate density as the number of organisms per unit area;

iii. apply modern methods to control human population;

Candidates should be able to:

i. deduce the effect of these factors on the size of population.

i. determine the interactions between biotic and abiotic factors, e.g. drought or scarcity of water which leads to food shortage and lack of space which causes increase in disease rates;

Candidates should be able to:

i. trace the sequence in succession to the climax stage of stability in plant population.

Candidates should be able to:

i. identify physical properties of different soil types based on simple measurement of particle size, porosity or water retention ability;

ii. determine the amounts of air, water, humus and capillarity in different soil types experimentally.

Candidates should be able to:

i. relate soil characteristics, types and components to the healthy growth of plant.

Candidates should be able to:

i. relate such factors as loss of inorganic matter, compaction, leaching, erosion of the top soil and repeated cropping with one variety.

ii. Renewal and maintenance of soil fertility

7. Humans and Environment

(a) Diseases:

(i) Common and endemic diseases.

ii. Easily transmissible diseases and disease syndrome such as:

- poliomyelitis

- cholera

- tuberculosis

- sexually transmitted disease/syndrome (gonorrhea, syphilis, AIDS, etc.

b. Pollution and its control

(i) sources, types, effects and methods of control.

(ii) Sanitation and sewage

Candidates should be able to:

i. apply the knowledge of the practice of contour ridging, terracing, mulching, poly-cropping, strip-cropping, use of organic and inorganic fertilizers, crop rotation, shifting cultivation, etc to enhance soil conservation.

Candidates should be able to:

i. identify ecological conditions that favour the spread of common endemic and potentially epidemic disease e.g. malaria, meningitis, drancunculiasis, schistosomiasis, onchocerciasis, typhoid fever and cholera etc.;

ii. relate the biology of the vector or agent of each disease with its spread and control;

Candidates should be able to:

i. use the knowledge of the causative organisms, mode of transmission and symptoms of the listed diseases to their prevention/treatment/control.

ii. apply the principles of inoculation and vaccination on disease prevention.

Candidates should be able to:

i. categorize pollution into air, water and soil pollution;

ii. relate the effects of common pollutants to human health and environmental degradation;

iii. determine the methods by which each pollutant may be controlled.

Candidates should be able to:

i. examine the importance of sanitation with emphasis on sewage disposal, community health and personal hygiene;

ii assess the roles and functions of international and national health agencies (e.g. World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations International Children Emergency Fund (UNICEF), International Red Cross Society (IRCS), and the ministries of health and environment.

(c) Conservation of Natural Resources

(I) Variation In Population

a. Morphological variations in the physical appearance of individuals.

(i) size (height, weight)

(ii) Colour (skin, eye, hair, coat of animals, scales and feathers.

(iii) Fingerprints

b. Physiological variation

(i) Ability to roll tongue

(ii) Ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC)

(iii) Blood groups

Candidates should be able to:

(i) apply the various methods of conservation of both the renewable and non-renewable natural resources for the protection of our environment for present and future generations;

(ii) outline the benefits of conserving natural resources;

(iii) identify the bodies responsible for the conservation of resources at the national and international levels (e.g. Nigerian Conservation Foundation (NCF), Federal Ministry of Environment, Nigeria National Parks, World Wildlife Foundation (WWF), International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) and their activities;

(iv) asses their activities.

Candidates should be able to:

i. differentiate between continuous and discontinuous variations with examples;

ii. relate the role of environmental conditions, habitat and the genetic constitution to variation.

Candidates should be able to:

i) measure heights and weight of pupils of the same age group;

ii) plot graphs of frequency distribution of the heights and weights.

Candidates should be able to:

i) observe and record various colour patterns in some plants and mammals.

Candidates should be able to:

i) apply classification of fingerprints in identity detection.

Candidates should be able to:

i) identify some specific examples of physiological variation among human population;

ii) categorize people according to their physiological variation.

b. Application of discontinuous variation in crime detection, blood transfusion and determination of paternity.

2. Heredity

a) Inheritance of characters in organisms;

i) Heritable and non-heritable characters.

b) Chromosomes – the basis of heredity;

(i) Structure

(ii) Process of transmission of hereditary characters from parents to offspring.

c) Probability in genetics and sex determination.

a) Application of the principles of heredity in:

i) Agriculture

(ii) Medicine

Candidates should be able to:

i) apply the knowledge of blood groups in blood transfusion and determination of paternity;

ii) use discontinuous variation in crime detection.

Candidates should be able to:

i. determine heritable and non-heritable characters with examples.

Candidates should be able to:

i. illustrate simple structure of DNA

Candidates should be able to:

i. illustrate segregation of genes at meiosis and recombination of genes at fertilization to account for the process of transmission of characters from parents to offsprings.

Candidates should be able to:

i) deduce that segregation of genes occurs during gamete formation and that recombination of genes at fertilization is random in nature.

Candidates should be able to:

i. analyze data on cross-breeding experiments;

ii. apply the principles of heredity in the production of new varieties of crops and livestock through cross-breeding;

iii. deduce advantages and disadvantages of out-breeding and in-breeding;

iv. analyze elementarily the contentious issues of genetically modified organisms (GMO) and gene therapy.

Candidates should be able to:

i) apply the knowledge of heredity in marriage counselling with particular reference to blood grouping, sickle-cell anaemia and the Rhesus factors.

b. Sex – linked characters e.g. baldness, haemophilia, colour blindness, etc.

ii) examine the significance of using recombinant DNA materials in the production of important medical products such as isulin, interferon and

enzymes.

Candidates should be able to:

i) identify characters that are sex linked.

1.) Adaptation for survival:

a) Factors that bring about competition.

b) Intra and inter-specific competition

c) Relationship between competition and succession.

2) Structural adaptations in organisms

Candidates should be able to:

i) relate increase in population, diseases, shortage of food and space with intra- and inter-specific competition.

Candidates should be able to:

i) determine niche differentiation as a means of reducing intra-specific competition.

Candidates should be able to:

i) relate competition to succession.

Candidates should be able to account for adaptation in organisms with respect to the following:

i) obtaining food (beaks and legs of birds; mouthparts of insects, especially mosquito, butterfly and moth.)

ii) protection and defence (stick insects, praying mantis and toad.

iii) securing mates (redhead male and female Agama lizards, display of feathers by birds).

iv. regulating body temperature (skin, feathers and hairs).

v. conserving water (spines in plants and scales in mammals).

3) Adaptive colouration and its functions

4) Behavioural adaptations in social animals

5. Theories of evolution

i) Lamarck’s theory

ii) Darwin’s theory

6. Evidence of evolution

Candidates should be able to:

i. categorize countershading in fish, toads and snakes and warning colouration in mushrooms.

Candidates should be able to:

i.) differentiate various castes in social insects like termites and their functions in their colony/hive;

ii.) account for basking in lizards, territorial behaviour of other animals under unfavourable conditions (hibernation and aestivation).

Candidates should be able to:

i.) relate organic evolution as the sum total of all adaptive changes that have taken place over a long period of time resulting in the diversity of forms, structure and functions among organisms.

ii.) examine the contributions of Lamarck and Darwin to the theory of evolution.

Candidates should be able to:

i.) provide evidences for evolution such as fossil records, comparative anatomy, physiology and embryology;

ii.) trace evolutionary trends in plants and animals;

iii.) provide evidence for modern evolutionary theories such as genetic studies and the role of mutation.

Ambuna, A. Egunyomi, A. and Osakwe, J. (1990). Comprehensive Certificate Biology for Senior Secondary Schools: University Press Limited

Egunyomi A. Bob – Manuel, Abdullahi B.A. and Oyetola O.A. (1988). Exam Focus: Biology For WASSCE and JME 2nd Edition, University Press Limited

MacQueen J. and Murray J. (1978). Success in Biology, Benin: John Murray

Ndu, F.O. C. Ndu, Abun A. and Aina J.O. (2001). Senior Secondary School Biology: Books 1 -3, Lagos: Longman

Odunfa, S.A. (2001). Essential of Biology, Ibadan: Heinemann

Oguniyi, M.B. Adebisi A.A. and Okojie J.A. (2000). Biology for Senior Secondary Schools: Books 1 – 3, Macmillan

Ramalingam, S.T. (2005). Modern Biology, SS Science Series. New Edition, AFP

Roberts, A.B.U. (1993). Functional Approach in Biology

Sorojini, T.L. Sheila, P and Charles, T.P. (2000). Modern Biology for Secondary Schools. Revised Edition, FEP

STAN. (2004). Biology for Senior Secondary Schools. Revised Edition, Ibadan: Heinemann

Stone, R.H. and Cozens, A.B.C. (1982). Biology for West African Schools. Longman

Usua, E.J. (1997). Handbook of practical Biology 2nd Edition, University Press, Limited

DOWNLOAD JAMB 2015 EXAMINATION SYLLABUSES…MATHEMATICS

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JAMB 2015 EXAMINATION SYLLABUS…MATHEMATICS

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MATHEMATICS
GENERAL OBJECTIVES
The aim of the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) syllabus in Mathematics is to prepare the candidates for the Board’s examination. It is designed to test the achievement of the course objectives, which are to:

(1)acquire computational and manipulative skills;
(2)develop precise, logical and formal reasoning skills;
(3)apply mathematical concepts to resolve issues in daily living;

This syllabus is divided into five sections:

I. Number and Numeration.
II.Algebra
III.Geometry/Trigonometry.
IV.Calculus
V.Statistics

DETAILED SYLLABUS

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES.

SECTION I: NUMBER AND NUMERATION.
1. Number bases:
(a) Operations in different number bases from 2 to 10;
(b) Conversion from one base to another including fractionalparts.

OBJECTIVES.
Candidates should be able to:

i Perform four basic operations’ (x,+,-,÷)
ii.Convert one base to another.

TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES.

2.  Fractions, Decimals,   Approximations and Percentages:

(a) Fractions and decimals.
(b) Significant figures.
(c) Decimal places.
(d) Percentage errors.
(e) Simple interest.
(f) Profit and loss per cent.
(g) Ratio, proportion and rate.

OBJECTIVES.
Candidates should be able to:

i. Perform basic operations (x,+,-, ÷) on fractions and decimals;
ii.Express  to  specified  number of significant   figures   and decimal   places.
iii.Calculate simple interest, profit and loss per cent, ratio proportion and rate.

TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES.

3. Indices, Logarithms and Surds:
(a) Laws of indices.
(b) Standard form.
(c) Laws of logarithm.
(d) Logarithm of any positive number to a given base.
(e) Change of bases in logarithm and application.
(f) Relationship between indices and logarithm.
(g) Surds.

OBJECTIVES.
Candidates should be able to:

i. Apply the laws of indices in calculation;
ii.Establish the relationship between indices and logarithms in solving problems;
iii.Solve problems in different bases in logarithms.
iv.Simplify and rationalize surds.
v.Perform basic operation on surds.

TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES.
4. Sets:
(a) Types of sets.
(b) Algebra of sets.
(c) Venn diagrams and their application.

OBJECTIVES.
Candidates should be able to:

i.Identify types of sets, i.e empty, universal, compliments, subsets, finite, infinite and disjoint sets;
ii.Solve set problems using symbol;
iii.Use Venn  diagrams  to  solve problems involving not more than 3 sets.

TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES.
SECTION II: ALGEBRA.

i. Polynomials:
(a) Change of subject of formula.
(b) Factor and remainder theorems.
(c) Factorization   of polynomials of degree not exceeding 3.
(d) Multiplication and division of polynomials.
(e) Roots of polynomials not exceeding degree 3.
(f) Simultaneous equations including one linear, one quadratic.
(g) Graphs of polynomials of degree not greater than 3.

OBJECTIVES.
Candidates should be able to:

i.Find the subject of the formula of a  given equation;
ii.Apply factor and remainder theorem to factorize a given expression;
iii.Multiply and divide polynomials of degree not more than 3;
iv.Factorize by regrouping difference of two squares, perfect squares, etc.
v.Solve simultaneous equations – one linear, one quadratic;
vi.Interpret   graphs   of   polynomials including application to maximum and minimum values.

TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES.

2. Variation:
(a) Direct.
(b) Inverse.
(c) Joint.
(d) Partial.
(e) Percentage increase and decrease.

OBJECTIVES.
Candidates should be able to:

i. Solve  problems  involving direct, inverse, joint and partial variations.
ii.Solve problems on percentage  increase and decrease in variation.

TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES.

3. Inequalities:
(a) Analytical and graphical solutions of linear inequalities.
(b) Quadratic inequalities with integral roots only.

OBJECTIVES.
Candidates should be able to:

Solve problems on linear and quadratic Inequalities both analytically and graphically.

TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES.
4. Progression:
(a) nth term of a progression;
(b) sum of  A. P. and G. P.

OBJECTIVES.
Candidates should be able to:

i. Determine the nth term of a progression;
ii.Compute the sum of A. P. and G.P;
iii.Sum to infinity a given G.P.

TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES.

5. Binary Operations:
(a) Properties of closure, commutativity, associativity  and distributivity.
(b) Identity and inverse elements.

OBJECTIVES.
Candidates should be able to:

i. Solve problems involving closure, commutativity, associativity and distributivity.
ii.Solve problems  involving  identity and inverse elements.

TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES.

6. Matrices and Determinants:
(a) Algebra of matrices not exceeding 3×3.
(b) Determinants of matrices not  exceeding 3×3.
(c) Inverses of 2 x 2 matrices [excluding  quadratic and higher degree  equations.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i.Perform basic operations (x,+, ÷,-) on matrices;
ii.Calculate determinants;
iii.Compute inverses of 2 x 2 matrices.

SECTION III: GEOMETRIC AND TRIGONOMETRY.

TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES.

1.  Euclidean Geometry:
(a)  Angles and lines.
(b)  Polygon; triangles, quadrilaterals  and general polygon.
(c)  Circles, angle properties, cyclic, quadr ilaterals and  interesting chords.
(d)  Construction.

OBJECTIVES:
Candidates should be able to:

i. Identify various types of lines and angles;
ii. Solve problems involving polygons;
iii.Calculate  angles  using   circle
iii.Theorems;
iv. Identify construction procedures of special angles, e.g. 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, 90° etc.

TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES.

2.   Mensuration:
(a)  Lengths and areas of plane  geometrical figures.
(b)  Length s of arcs and chords of a circle.
(c)  Areas of sectors and segments of  circle.
(d)  Surface areas and volumes of simple solids and composite   figures.
(e)  The earth as a sphere, longitudes  and latitudes.

OBJECTIVES.
Candidates should be able to:

i. Calculate the perimeters and areas of triangles, quadrilaterals, circles and composite figures;
ii.Find the length of an arc. a chord and areas of sectors and segments of circles;
iii.Calculate total surface areas and volumes  of cuboids,  cylinders.Cones,pyramids, prisms, sphere  and composite figures;
iv.Determine the distance between two points on the earth’s surface.

TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES.

3.Loci:
Locus in 2 dimensions based on geometric principles relating to lines and curves.

OBJECTIVES.
Candidates should be able to:

(i).Identify and interpret loci relating to parallel lines, perpendicular bisectors angle bisectors and circles.

TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES.

4.Coordinate Geometry:
(a)Midpoint and gradient of a line segment.
(b)Distance between two points.
(c)Parallel and perpendicular lines.
(d)Equations of straight lines.

OBJECTIVES.
Candidates should be able to:

i. Determine the midpoint and gradient of a line segment;
ii.Find distance between two points;
iii.Identify conditions for parallelism and perpendicularity.
iv. Find the equation of a line in the  two-point form, point-slope form, slope    intercept   form  and  the general form.

TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES.

5.   Trigonometry:
(a) Trigonometric ratios of angels.
(b) Angles, of elevation and  depression and bearing.
(c) Areas and solutions of triangle
(d) Graphs of sine and cosine
(e) sine and cosine formulae.

OBJECTIVES.
Candidates should be able to:

i. Calculate  the   sine,   cosine   and tangent of angles  between – 360°=  0=360°;
ii.Apply those special angles, e.g. 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, 90°,  135° to solve simple problems  in trigonometry.
iii.Solve problems involving angles of elevation and depression and bearing;
iv. Apply trigonometric formulae to find areas of triangles;
v. Solve problems involving sine and cosine graphs.

SECTION IV: CALCULUS

TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES.

I. Differentiation:
(a)limit of a function;
(b)differentiation of explicit  algebraic and simple trigonometric functions – sine,cosine and tangent.

OBJECTIVES.
Candidates should be able to:

i. Find the limit of a function;
ii.Differentiate explicit algebraic and simple trigonometric functions.

TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES.

2. Application of differentiation:
(a) rate of change.
(b) maxima and minima.

OBJECTIVES.
Candidates should be able to:

Solve problems involving applications of rate of change, maxima and minima.

TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES.

3. Integration:
(a) integration of explicit algebraic and simple trigonometric functions.
(b) Area under the curve.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i.Solve  problems  of integration –  involving algebraic and simple trigonometric functions;
ii.Calculate area under the curve (simple  cases only).

SECTION V: STATISTICS

TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES.

1. Representation of data:
(a) Frequency distribution
(b) Histogram, bar chat and pie chart

OBJECTIVES.
Candidates should be to:

i. Identify and interpret frequency distribution tables;
ii.Interprete  information on histogram, bar  chat and pie chart.

TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES.

2. Measures of Location:
(a)  Mean, mode  and  median  of  grouped and ungrouped data (simple cases only) –
(b)  Cumulative frequency.

OBJECTIVES.
Candidates should be able to:

i.  Calculate the mean, mode and median of ungrouped and grouped data (simple cases only)
ii. Use or give to find the median quartiles and percentiles.

TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES.

3. Measures of Dispersion:
Range, mean deviation, variance and standard deviation.

OBJECTIVES.
Candidates should be able to:

Calculate the range, mean deviation, variance and standard deviation of grouped and ungrouped data.

TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES.
4. Permutation and Combination:

OBJECTIVES.
Candidates should be able to:

Solve  simple  problems  involving permutation and combination.

TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES.

5. Probability

OBJECTIVES.
Candidates should be able to:

Solve simple problems in probability including addition and multiplication).

Mathematics

RECOMMENDED TEXTS.

Adelodun A. A (2000) Distinction in Mathematics: Comprehensive Revision Text, (3rd Edition) Ado-Ekiti: FNPL.
Anyebe, J. A. B (1998) Basic Mathematics for Senior Secondary Schools and Remedial Students in Higher Institutions, Lagos: Kenny Moore.
Channon, J. B. Smith, A. M (2001) New General Mathematics for West Africa SSS1 to 3, Lagos: Longman.
David -Osuagwu, M. et al (2000) New School Mathematics for Senior Secondary Schools, Onitsha: Africana – FIRST Publishers.
Egbe. E et al (2000) Further Mathematics, Onitsha: Africana -FIRST Publishers

Ibude, S. O. et al (2003) Algebra and Calculus for Schools and Colleges: LINCEL Publishers.
Tuttub – Adegun M. R. et al (1997), Further Mathematics Project Books 1 to 3, Ibadan; NPS Educational
Oloworise Femi John (2009) Complete Mathematics, Jolem publishers, Kaduna
Paul Sisson (2003) College algebra, Hawks Publishing
10.Earl W. Swokowski Jeffery A. Cole (2007) Algebra and trigometry with analytic geometry, Thompson Books/Cole
11 .R. Smedley and G. Wiseman (2001) Intoducing pure Mathematics Sedition, Oxford Univ. Press
12. A. Godman and J. F. Talbert (2005) Additional Mathematics Pure and applied, Longman Publishers
13. Murrey R. Spiegel and Lary J. Stephens (1998) Schaum’s outline series
Third edition, McGrew Hill, U.S.A

 

EDUCATION: AS IT WAS IN THE PAST, NOT SO TODAY

EDUCATION: AS IT WAS IN THE PAST, NOT SO TODAY

bored-students

In the beginning

The constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (1999) emphasizes the importance and linkage of education to the development of any society when it highlighted that education satisfies a basic human need for knowledge, provides a means of helping to meet other needs, and helps sustain and accelerate overall development.

Thus, with Nigeria’s attainment of 54 years of self rule, education in the country has passed through different times from the formative period in the hands of the various Christian missions, to the control of the colonial masters that came up the stage between 1882 and 1940s.

During the time, the teaching staff comprised the missionary, his wife and other employee(s). Consideration for quality was almost nil as there were no barrier, whatsoever, to entrance of pupils either. Teaching and acquisition of knowledge took place in the same building used for religious service.

Though, the colonial era admittedly recorded some improvement compared to the missionary, the dominant perspective then was that the system was still far from the ideal.

A 2009 report by Joshua Oni in his project titled, “Management of Primary Education in Nigeria: Trends, Constraints and Solutions’, said the Phelps-Stokes Funds of United States of America and the International Education Board set up a commission to study education in West, South and Equatorial Africa. In 1922, it published a report entitled: Education in Africa. Members of the commission revealed this stark truth: The record of the Colonial Government in Africa is a mixture of the good and the bad, the effective and the ineffective, the wise and the unwise (Lewis, 1962).

As the colonialists prepare to leave the stage, the regional governments between 1954 and 1960 were said to be self-serving to a large extent with each governments coming up with laws essentially to regulate the education system. The Western and Eastern Regional Governments, for instance, enacted laws, among other things, for the free, Universal Primary Education (UPE) schemes launched in 1955 and 1957, respectively.

Post independence era

Through the whole course of the time, the government puts in place rules and regulations, codified into ordinances and codes, essentially to direct the actions of all and sundry connected with the education system.

The post-independence era witnessed a lot of developments as government takes charge of the administration and management of the education with support from the missions especially at the primary and secondary levels of learning.

Growth of Secondary Education

With primary education sector as the oldest dating back to about 171 years ago, precisely 1843, the importance of secondary education in the educational system to provide an opportunity for a child to acquire additional knowledge, skills, and traits beyond primary school led to the establishment of secondary education in Nigeria as primary proved to be insufficient to acquire adequate literacy, communication skills and numeracy.

Thus, reports have it that the establishment of a CMS Grammar School, Bariga, Lagos in 1859 by Church Missionary Society and the establishment of Kings College, Lagos in 1909 as the first government owned secondary school. According to Adesina (1977) and Fafunwa (1974), many ordinances, edicts and bye laws were promulgated to improve the state of secondary education in Nigeria.

Throughout the period of stewardship of the Colonial Governments in Nigeria, there were few secondary schools to provide secondary education for those that were then willing to acquire it. Statistics indicate that the number of secondary schools increased from 161 in 1955 to 275 in 1956, 297 in 1957, 303 in 1958, 305 in 1959 and 311 in 1960 (Adesina, 1977).

Since the attainment of the country’s independence status in 1960, secondary education has continued to grow in number and enrollment. In particular, the number of secondary schools increased from 1,227 in 1960 to 1,654 in 1965; 6, 231 in 1985; 6,279,462 in 2004, 6,398,343 in 2005 and 6,536,038 in 2006 while also enrollment increased from 168, 309 in 1960 to 252, 586 in 1965, 3, 807,755 in 1985 and 6,536,038 in 2006 (Ukeje).

Evolution of tertiary education

The origins of the university system are in Yaba College, founded in 1932 in Yaba, Lagos as the first tertiary educational institute in Nigeria. It attained autonomous status in 1969 by virtue of Decree 23 which granted it the mandate to provide full and part time courses of instruction and training in technology, applied science, commerce and management.

Today, federal, states and private universities has risen to 129, 82 polytechnics, 36 colleges of agriculture, 159 technical colleges, 55 colleges of health technology and allied institutions and 26 monotechnics.

Challenges/Reactions

A careful appraisal of the education sector has shown that from time immemorial, the funding pattern of the sector has not recorded any significant improvement since independence. In an interview with Daily Independent, Associate Professor in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Lagos, Efe Ikponmwosa, who spoke on poor funding of tertiary education said tertiary education has been faced with serious challenges of inadequate funding in the past two decades.

“When the Federal Government of Nigeria introduced its policy of free education in all public schools and at all levels in 1997, it was expected that adequate provisions will be made in the annual budget proposals to fund the education sector.

However the sector has experienced over the years gradual decline in funding. The government continues to claim that it has increased budgetary allocation; but when placed side by side with students’ population in Nigerian public tertiary institutions, the provision has been found to be grossly inadequate,” he said.

Speaking further, Ikponmwosa in a paper titled, Funding of Tertiary Education In Nigeria: University of Lagos as Case Study’, said the quantum and quality of funding of the education sector in Nigeria, when benchmark with international standards, will not only determine the rate of growth of the sector, but also determine the quality of the outcomes as well as the extent the objectives of the sector are fulfilled.

He added, ‘In Nigeria, the inadequate funding of the university system has become a major societal issue, which calls for a sustainable and lasting solution. The sector has continued to experience unrests with no hope for a permanent solution insight as all stakeholders have continued to take for granted the nation’s future glory which rests on provision of qualitative education at all levels to her citizenry’.

A World Bank descriptive statistics of annual budgetary allocations of 20 countries in major countries of the world rated Nigeria in the last position.

Annual budgetary allocations of 20 World Bank sampled countries to education (World Bank, 2012)

According to the above statistics, Nigeria’s percentage of the total annual budgetary allocations to education is significantly lower than those of the 20 World Bank sampled countries making her actually the worst of the all.

Also, the country’s score on the Education Sub-category of Ibrahim Index for African Governance is significantly lower than the average score of all African countries. Of 52 African countries, Nigeria’s position is 43rd among the worst countries with respect to the attribute under investigation.

In an assessment of the education industry since independence, a University lecturer from Ajayi Crowder University, Oyo, Dr. Ademola Adejumobi who disagreed on the notion of fallen standard, argued that it was performance by students that had actually gone down because the standard has not changed.

‘It is pathetic to find out that a graduate cannot communicate both orally and in written forms. Communication is vital and it is an important aspect of learning. Where students’ find it difficult to communicate, ability to comprehend is limited and hampered. Where this is the case there will be limited or no knowledge at all.

Making a comparison of education and learning in the 70s and what obtains today, he said modern day students learn new subjects like Information technology that has given students more advantage to learn at a very fast rate.

He added that students of today are also exposed to a lot of opportunities in the areas of skill acquisition and entrepreneurship education among others. He lamented that civics and history education that afforded students of yester years to learn about the past is missing because they were no longer taught in schools.

“Where you have history as a subject, students are exposed to the life and times of leaders and learn from their mistakes and things they did right. One big factor that is responsible for good learning is quality of motivation. In those days, education was not free and many of us from poor homes cannot afford to fail because if you fail and your parents are not able to raise money to rewrite the examination or re-enroll, that might signal the end to the educational pursuit of such candidates.

“Students of those years were serious but the reverse is the case today because many students are very comfortable with little or no quality motivations to make them learn with deliberate seriousness,” he added.

He blamed the present day pleasures and economic demands for the reasons why children lack adequate parental supervision as many parents care less for their children in order to make ends meet, adding, ‘parents leave homes early hours of the day when children are still in bed and return late in the night when the children are already in bed’.

Speaking on government neglect, poor funding and attention on the education sector, he lamented that governments at the three tiers of governance have sequentially failed in the provision of necessary facilities for learning and that it has resulted in routine truncation of the learning process as teachers go on strike at the least opportunities.

He added, “It is the children that are the causalities of situations like this that had become part and parcel of the school academic calendar. Refusal and failure of government to pay teachers salary has made a non-sense of the education system. Students’ are too distracted and the whole learning system is upside down. Though there are some good schools around but government has the biggest proprietor have failed.

Commenting on the free education programmes of governments at the three levels, the Don said implementation of the project in modern day Nigeria lacked discipline that was the contributory factor to the free education programmes of the then Western region government.

“The free education of those days had discipline incorporated into the system. There were strict measures and discipline for both teachers and students while parents at the home front were also not found wanting in any way. A man without discipline cannot make anything meaningful in life. Discipline stands out the free education of those years in comparison to what obtains today.

Contributing to the issue, the Vice Chancellor, University of Abuja, (UNIABUJA), Professor Micheal Adikwu blamed present day education for excessive emphasis on theory instead of practical and that the area will have to be strongly looked into, adding that the Nigerian curriculum too has been largely based on foreign ideas.

He suggested that “We need to naturalise and nationalise our curriculum more and more. Our curriculum should emphasise those materials and products in our environment.

Generally, he opined that the Nigerian education system has done well that with just about two universities in 1960 and there are now over 129 universities.

Describing the growth rate as tremendous, he added that in those days, one has to travel almost across the country to attend a secondary school, but now every village has, at least, a secondary school.

“The Nigerian education system has done well. With just about two Universities in 1960, we now have over 129 universities. That is a tremendous growth. In those days, one has to travel almost across the country to attend a secondary school. Now every village has, at least, a secondary school,” he said.

Speaking on the numerical strength of schools in the country, Professor Adikwu stated that the country have done well adding that the more ‘the number of people that are educated, the more the geniuses that will be discovered to solve our teething national problems’.

He added, “Even in terms of quality too, we have not done too badly. The set of skills needed to carry out various functions in the society then was less complex than what we have today.

“The people educated then were trained to meet the demands of those days. I am sure that they will not fit into the complex society of today. They too were the foundation upon which the educational system of today was built.

“If that structure was strong, then today we would have a strong educational system. I do believe that that structure was not very strong and easily underwent dilution in the later years as the number of schools and the people that placed demand for space in the schools increased,” he said.

However, on funding, he said government funding has been fair, saying ‘all that is required is that the schools themselves should try to generate funds to be self-sustainable’.

Emphasizing on innovations that can be introduced to move the sector forward, the VC said the schools should be product and service provider oriented; stressing that many foreign institutions thrive on the commercialisation of their research finds and also provide services such as consultancy that this is the area our institutions must focus to excel.

Also, Principal of Kings’ College, Lagos, Dele Olapeju who affirmed that the system has been challenging, added that the country has done well in the area of sustaining education in spite of the various challenges and that by now Nigeria should not be groping in darkness.

He said at independence, the university system was good with lots of expatriates coming to Nigeria to study, he lamented that the reverse is the case and the present situation has not in any way helped the system.

“when we took off, the university system was good there are lots of expatriates that came to Nigeria to study but now we are now having a geometric progression of our population, that means our population has been growing in gallops, galloping population, things are no longer the way it should be so we have to go back to the drawing board in order to deliver quality education.

He, however, tasked Nigerians from all walks of life to live a responsible life by having a sizeable family that can be adequately taken care of without putting additional burden on the government.

“I think Nigerians are too used to free things, nothing is free anywhere in the world, for education to thrive and have quality, it requires the contribution of every stakeholder, education for all is the responsibility of all, it is not for people to just be giving birth to children and say it is the responsibility of government to take care of them’

“There must be shared responsibility and people must be responsible enough to see that the children they bring forth must be taken care of.

“Education is an investment, when you educate a child you are investing in your future so that when thing are no longer working for you, the children will now take over and take care of you. We should see education as an investment; parents must invest in quality education of their children if you don’t give in much you cannot take much from your investment,” he added.

An educationist and Administrator of Petraville Schools, Lagos, Dr. Peter Kudaisi said the present system of education lacks quality and substance that made education and learning thick in the 60s and 70s.

Emphasising that products of early post independence era were more grounded in education, he lamented that incessant strikes in the sector has done more harms than correcting the reasons for which labour unions call their colleagues to strikes.

“The incessant strikes in the education sector has not helped the standard of education and the products been churned out now cannot match with those the same institutions churned out in the past. Some of the graduates now cannot match with the then standard six.

“Education in the past cannot be compared with what we have now, because in the present day education, teachers are not well trained because they are also products of incessant labour struggles”, he added.

He extolled the commitment of stakeholders in the 60s to the sector and selfless interests to impart knowledge as stated in the curriculum that was stable.

“While I was in school we did 6-5-4, six years in the primary, five years in secondary and four years in the university it was later moved to 6-3-3-4 and now there is 9-3-4, we can see the inconsistencies. For example if our government see a system of education in European countries, what they do is that they will import everything into the country without looking at its adaptability to the local system.

“Also, children’s phobia for reading and the advent of internet that had helped developed and enrich the knowledge of children elsewhere, to my surprise the reverse was the case in our own education system”.

Calling for eradication of the various distractions that had taken books away from the tables of students, Dr. Kudaisi emphasized that for the standard of education to move forward, the reading culture must be revived, adding that another challenge is the lack good libraries in many schools.

He however said there is need for holistic reappraisal of the education sector so as to find lasting solution to the dwindling education standard.

Ikpowomsa in his submission called for decentralization of the learning system. He said the existence of the central control system for education generally, has been so poor that many good things have been done away with.

According to him, “The free education at all levels” syndrome is a product of this central control mechanism, which, has resulted in serious under-funding of the universities and education in general. Poor funding should be seen as a great obstacle to sustainable education.

He suggested, “Public expenditure on higher education should be a significant part of total public expenditure. This is justified by the critical role higher education plays in the economic development of a nation. Like modern societies, Nigeria needs to invest more on higher education, in teaching and research, than she is doing now in order to keep up with the growing competition in the rapidly evolving global economy.

Education is all efforts, conscious and direct, incidental and indirect, made by a given society to accomplish certain objectives that are considered desirable in terms of the individual’s own needs as well as the needs of the society where that education is based (Fafunwa, 2003).

Peter James Kpolovie and Isaac Esezi Obilor in their essay “Adequacy/Inadequacy: Education Funding in Nigeria wrote, “Education is a key index of national development. It improves productivity, empowerment and health, but reduces negative features of life such as child labour, prostitution, crime and other vices.

By Oyeniran Apata and Seyi Taiwo-Oguntuase, Lagos.

http://dailyindependentnig.com/2014/10/education-past-today/

AND HERE IS TO FOLA’S NEW BOOK “AERIAL LAGOS: A BIRD’S EYE VIEW OF AFRICA’S LARGEST METROPOLIS”…CONGRATS!

 AND HERE IS TO FOLA'S NEW BOOK "AERIAL LAGOS: A BIRD’S EYE VIEW OF AFRICA’S LARGEST METROPOLIS"...CONGRATS!

Fola Arthur-Worrey

A pictorial celebration of Africa’s largest metropolis

Writer and administrator, Fola Arthur-Worrey, showcases a compelling Lagos in his new book of photographs, CHUX OHAI writes

It was not for nothing that the cream of the public service in Lagos gathered recently at the Nigeria Institute of International Affairs, Victoria Island, for the presentation of a photo book by the Chief Executive of the Lagos State Security Trust Fund, Fola Arthur-Worrey. They had grabbed the opportunity offered by the event to join in the celebration of Lagos, often referred to as the ‘Centre of Excellence’.

In his short opening address, the chair of the occasion, Prof. Ade Elebute, acknowledged the fact that in the last few years Lagos had been an object of attraction to many people around the world, including foreign tourists and businessmen.

He said, “In the last three or four years, there have been several publications on Lagos, which makes it a very important destination. Lagos is probably the most futuristic metropolis today and all eyes are on it, whether from the north, south, east or west.”

Describing Lagos as the fastest growing city in the world, Elebute added that it was the type of priceless jewel that only a devoted resident like Arthur-Worrey could attempt to illustrate with his pen and camera.

Titled Aerial Lagos: A Bird’s Eye View of Africa’s Largest Metropolis, the book contains pictures of many parts of the metropolis taken by the author during extensive flights aboard a helicopter. It is, by all means, an extension of an endless narrative that seeks to unravel the city in different ways.

Arthur-Worrey described the book, in an interview with our correspondent, as the fulfilment of a personal dream that he had nursed since 2006.

He said, “I just took advantage of the opportunity to fly over the city a number of times. I had the opportunity through my association with Calverton Helicopter Services to do flyovers before the company went public. Although I couldn’t go everywhere because there were flight restrictions, I tried my best to capture the parts of the city that I visited. I finally came up with this book because I wanted to share my experiences. I knew there had been books with shots of Lagos, but not one that is dedicated to the city as a whole.”

The author notes that the content of the book does not only present a realistic picture of the city’s demography, it also settles the age-old argument about which major city in Africa – between Lagos, Cairo and Johannesburg – is the largest metropolis.

Arguing that Lagos had always been undercounted, he continued, “There are more than one concepts of the city. When you look at the pictures, you will understand what I am saying. If you look at density, there is Lagos Metropolitan, which covers the island up to the mainland – an area that used to be known as the old Federal Capital Territory. Also there is Lagos State, which has morphed essentially into one metropolis or what you may call a conurbation because it is connected everywhere.

“If you consider that there are over 300 communities and towns that make up Lagos, then you will begin to understand the idea that gave birth to this photo project. There have been add-ons over the years. I am talking about places like Surulere, Epe, Ikorodu and Ketu, which were parts of the old Western Region attached to Lagos. Now, if you fly over the city and you look at a place like Ajegunle, you will understand that there are probably more people living in the community than in half of Ibadan. So it is the informal settlements that, in my view, make Lagos Africa’s largest metropolis.”

While the guests, including Senator Olorunimbe Mamora and a former Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Odein Ajumogobia, took turns to comment on the significance of the book to the development of Lagos State, a Senior Advocate of Nigeria, Prof. Itse Sagay, said it would be important for determining the position of the state in Nigeria in terms of history, geography and economy.

Copyright PUNCH.

COMMENT

Congrats again Fola.Could not come.Tied up.But my wife said it was a very successful event.More grease to your elbows….Kayode Odumosu